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İzmir körfezindeki zararlı alglerin 30 yıllık incelenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 39, Sayı 1, 61 - 70, 15.03.2022

Öz



Son yıllarda endüstrileşme ve artan sanayi faaliyetleri nedeniyle denize kıyısı olan şehirlerde görülen deniz kirliliği, Türkiye’nin üçüncü en kalabalık kenti olan İzmir’de de görülmekteydi. Ege Denizinin en verimli alanlarından birisi olan “İzmir Körfezi’nde başlatılan büyük kanal projesi ve yıkılan Ragıp Paşa Dalyanı sayesinde körfez akıntısında düzelme ve kirlilikte azalma olmasına rağmen; dönem dönem gözlenen alg patlamaları, denizdeki canlıları olduğu kadar insan sağlığını da tehdit etmektedir. Bu çalışmada 1990-2016 yılları arasında İzmir Büyük Şehir Belediyesi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Deniz Bilimleri ve Teknolojisi Enstitüsü ve Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesinin ortaklaşa yürüttüğü izleme projeleri sırasında elde edilen 360 kantitatif ve 1080 kalitatif örnek incelenerek; hem körfezde geçen süre boyunca gözlenen zararlı alg patlamaları hem de baskın 2 büyük sınıfı olan Dinophyceae ve Bacillariophyceae türlerinin dağılımları incelenmiştir. DSP, ASP ve PSP gibi toksinler üreten türler yanında, herhangi bir toksin içermeyen fakat aşırı üreyerek ortamda olumsuz koşulları oluşturan türler incelenmiştir.



Kaynakça

  • Aktan, Y., İşinibilir, M., Topaloğlu, B., Dede, A. & Çardak, M. (2008). Mucilage event associated with diatoms and dinoflagellates from the Marmara Sea Turkey. The Changing Ocean: From Past to Future, The 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae. Hong Kong, China,
  • AlgaeBase, (2021). World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland”, Retrieved from: http://www.algaebase.org/ (27.06.2021)
  • Anderson, D. M., Fukuyo, Y. & Matsuoka K. (1995). Cyst Methodologies. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, pp.229-249. IOC Manuals and Guides No.33, UNESCO
  • Balech, E. (1988). Los Dinoflagelados del Atlantico Sudoccidental. Publicaciones Especiales. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 1, 223-310.
  • Balkıs, N. (2004). Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of the Büyükçekmece Bay in the Sea of Marmara. Scientia Marina, 68, 33-44. DOI: 10.3989/scimar.2004.68n133
  • Balkıs, N. & Koray, T. (2014). A check-list of Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in the coastal zone of Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46(4), 1029-1038.
  • Bargu S., Koray, T. & Lundholm, N. (2002). First report of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle 2003, A new potentially toxic species from Turkish coasts. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19(3-4), 479-483.
  • Boltovskoy, D. (1981). Atlas del zooplankton del Atlantico sudoccidental. Publicacion especial del INIDEP, Mar del Plata, 936 pp.
  • Buskey, E.J. & Hyatt, C.J. (1995). Effects of the Texas (USA) ‘brown tide’ alga on planktonic grazers. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 126, 285-292. DOI: 10.3354/meps126285
  • DBTE-167 (2008). Büyük Kanal Projesi'nin İzmir Körfezi denizel ortamında fiziksel, kimyasal, biyolojik ve mikrobiyolojik etki ve sonuçlarının incelenmesi, İZSU Genel Müdürlüğü Projesi.
  • DBTE-199 (2012). Büyük Kanal Projesi'nin İzmir Körfezi denizel ortamında fiziksel, kimyasal, biyolojik ve mikrobiyolojik etki ve sonuçlarının incelenmesi. İZSU Genel Müdürlüğü Projesi.
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  • Çolak-Sabancı, F. & Koray, T. (2005). İzmir Körfezi'nde 1998-2001 yılları arasında fitoplanktonik tür çeşitliliği değişimi. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 22 (3-4), 273-280.
  • Delgado, M. & Fortuno, J.M. (1991). Atlas de fitoplancton del Mar Mediterráneo. Scientia Marina, 55, 1-133
  • Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, H.M.S.O., Govt. Bookshops, 303p.
  • Graham, H.W. (1942). Studies in the morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of the Peridiniales. Scient. Results Cruise VII Carnegie, Biology Series, 3, 1-129.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of diatom and dinoflagellate resting spores in ships' ballast water: implications for plankton biogeography and aquaculture. Journal of Plankton Research, 4(8), 1067-1084. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/14.8.1067
  • Hallegraeff, G. M. (1995). Harmful algal blooms: a global overview. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. IOC Manuals and Guides, No.33, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1–22.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. (2003). Harmful algal blooms: A global overview. In G. M. Hallegraeff, D. M. Anderson, A. D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology, 2nd Edition, IOC-UNE-SCO, Paris, 25-49.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. Anderson, D.M. Cembella, A.D. & Enevoldsen, H.O. (2004). Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. 2nd revised edition. Paris, France, UNESCO, 793pp. (Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology. DOI: 10.25607/OBP-1370
  • Hasle, G.R. & Syvertsen, E.E. (1997). Marine Diatoms. In C.R. Tomas, (Ed.), Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press a division of Harcourt Brace & Company, San Diego, USA, Chapter 2, pp. 5-385. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012693018-4/50004-5
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  • Isamu Y. (1982). Illustrations of the marine plankton of Japan: Protozoa. 3rd ed. Osaka: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Ltd., 161-193
  • Koray, T. (2001). A check-list for phytoplankton of Turkish seas. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1-2),1-23.
  • Koray, T. (2002a). Toxic and harmful phytoplanktonic species in the Aegean (including Dardanelles) and Northeastern Mediterranean Coastline. In B. Öztürk, N. Başusta, (Eds.), Workshop on Lessepsian Migration Proceedings, No.: 9, p. 40-45, Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey, 2002.
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  • Koray, T. & Çolak-Sabancı, F. (2001). Toxic planktonic micro-algae of Turkish Seas. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1). 293-298.
  • Koray T. & Cihangir, B. (2002a). Denizlerde aşırı plankton üremesi (Red-Tide), balık ve balıkçılığa etkileri; İzmir Körfezi örneği. Türkiye'nin Kıyı ve Deniz Alanları IV. Ulusal Konferansı Tebliğleri, İzmir.
  • Koray, T. (2002b). Toxic and harmful phytoplanktonic species in the Southern Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Eastern Aegean Sea and Northeastern Mediterranean coastline. 10. International Conference on Harmful Algae, 21-25 October 2002, St. Pete Beach, Florida, USA.
  • Koray, T. & Çolak-Sabancı, F. (2003). Kuzey Ege ve Batı Karadeniz'de toksik mikro-algler ve izlenme stratejileri. Turkish Journal of Aquatic Life, 1(1).
  • Koray, T., Yurga, L. & Çolak-Sabancı, F. (2007). Türkiye Denizleri Mikroplankton (=Protista) Türlerinin Kontrol Listesi ve Tür Tayin Atlası. Proje No: TBAG-2239 (102T174), 154 pp.
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Investigation of harmful algae in İzmir Bay for the 30 years

Yıl 2022, Cilt 39, Sayı 1, 61 - 70, 15.03.2022

Öz



Marine pollution, which has been seen for the recent years in cities with a coast that industrializes day by day, was also seen in İzmir, the third most populous city of Turkey. After the destruction of Ragıp Paşa jetty and especially the completion of the Grand Canal Project, the improvement in the gulf is increasing day by day. In İzmir Bay, which is one of the most fertile areas of the Aegean Sea, excessive algae growth is occasionally observed. In this study, 360 quantitative and 1080 qualitative samples were obtained during the monitoring projects carried out jointly by İzmir Metropolitan Municipality, Dokuz Eylül University Marine Sciences and Technology Institute and Ege University Faculty of Fisheries between 1990-2016 were examined. The distribution of the 2 dominant major classes Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae were investigated. In addition to the species that produce toxins such as DSP, ASP and PSP into the marine environment, species that do not contain any toxins but cause adverse conditions in the environment by mass-formation were investigated.


Kaynakça

  • Aktan, Y., İşinibilir, M., Topaloğlu, B., Dede, A. & Çardak, M. (2008). Mucilage event associated with diatoms and dinoflagellates from the Marmara Sea Turkey. The Changing Ocean: From Past to Future, The 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae. Hong Kong, China,
  • AlgaeBase, (2021). World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland”, Retrieved from: http://www.algaebase.org/ (27.06.2021)
  • Anderson, D. M., Fukuyo, Y. & Matsuoka K. (1995). Cyst Methodologies. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, pp.229-249. IOC Manuals and Guides No.33, UNESCO
  • Balech, E. (1988). Los Dinoflagelados del Atlantico Sudoccidental. Publicaciones Especiales. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 1, 223-310.
  • Balkıs, N. (2004). Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of the Büyükçekmece Bay in the Sea of Marmara. Scientia Marina, 68, 33-44. DOI: 10.3989/scimar.2004.68n133
  • Balkıs, N. & Koray, T. (2014). A check-list of Tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliophora) in the coastal zone of Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46(4), 1029-1038.
  • Bargu S., Koray, T. & Lundholm, N. (2002). First report of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle 2003, A new potentially toxic species from Turkish coasts. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19(3-4), 479-483.
  • Boltovskoy, D. (1981). Atlas del zooplankton del Atlantico sudoccidental. Publicacion especial del INIDEP, Mar del Plata, 936 pp.
  • Buskey, E.J. & Hyatt, C.J. (1995). Effects of the Texas (USA) ‘brown tide’ alga on planktonic grazers. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 126, 285-292. DOI: 10.3354/meps126285
  • DBTE-167 (2008). Büyük Kanal Projesi'nin İzmir Körfezi denizel ortamında fiziksel, kimyasal, biyolojik ve mikrobiyolojik etki ve sonuçlarının incelenmesi, İZSU Genel Müdürlüğü Projesi.
  • DBTE-199 (2012). Büyük Kanal Projesi'nin İzmir Körfezi denizel ortamında fiziksel, kimyasal, biyolojik ve mikrobiyolojik etki ve sonuçlarının incelenmesi. İZSU Genel Müdürlüğü Projesi.
  • Cupp, E.E. (1943). Marine Plankton Diatoms of the West Coast of North America. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 5(1), 1-238p, Reprint by 1977.
  • Çolak-Sabancı, F. & Koray, T. (2005). İzmir Körfezi'nde 1998-2001 yılları arasında fitoplanktonik tür çeşitliliği değişimi. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 22 (3-4), 273-280.
  • Delgado, M. & Fortuno, J.M. (1991). Atlas de fitoplancton del Mar Mediterráneo. Scientia Marina, 55, 1-133
  • Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, H.M.S.O., Govt. Bookshops, 303p.
  • Graham, H.W. (1942). Studies in the morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of the Peridiniales. Scient. Results Cruise VII Carnegie, Biology Series, 3, 1-129.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of diatom and dinoflagellate resting spores in ships' ballast water: implications for plankton biogeography and aquaculture. Journal of Plankton Research, 4(8), 1067-1084. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/14.8.1067
  • Hallegraeff, G. M. (1995). Harmful algal blooms: a global overview. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. IOC Manuals and Guides, No.33, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1–22.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. (2003). Harmful algal blooms: A global overview. In G. M. Hallegraeff, D. M. Anderson, A. D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology, 2nd Edition, IOC-UNE-SCO, Paris, 25-49.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. Anderson, D.M. Cembella, A.D. & Enevoldsen, H.O. (2004). Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. 2nd revised edition. Paris, France, UNESCO, 793pp. (Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology. DOI: 10.25607/OBP-1370
  • Hasle, G.R. & Syvertsen, E.E. (1997). Marine Diatoms. In C.R. Tomas, (Ed.), Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press a division of Harcourt Brace & Company, San Diego, USA, Chapter 2, pp. 5-385. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012693018-4/50004-5
  • Hendey, N.I. (1964) An ıntroductory account of the smaller algae of British Coastal Waters. Part V. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms), Fishery Investigations, Series IV, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 317p.
  • Isamu Y. (1982). Illustrations of the marine plankton of Japan: Protozoa. 3rd ed. Osaka: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Ltd., 161-193
  • Koray, T. (2001). A check-list for phytoplankton of Turkish seas. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1-2),1-23.
  • Koray, T. (2002a). Toxic and harmful phytoplanktonic species in the Aegean (including Dardanelles) and Northeastern Mediterranean Coastline. In B. Öztürk, N. Başusta, (Eds.), Workshop on Lessepsian Migration Proceedings, No.: 9, p. 40-45, Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey, 2002.
  • Koray, T., Gökpınar, Ş. & Yurga, L. (1999). The effects of the pollution on the distribution of microplankton in the bay of Izmir (Aegean Sea). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 16(3-4.), 421-431.
  • Koray, T. & Çolak-Sabancı, F. (2001). Toxic planktonic micro-algae of Turkish Seas. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1). 293-298.
  • Koray T. & Cihangir, B. (2002a). Denizlerde aşırı plankton üremesi (Red-Tide), balık ve balıkçılığa etkileri; İzmir Körfezi örneği. Türkiye'nin Kıyı ve Deniz Alanları IV. Ulusal Konferansı Tebliğleri, İzmir.
  • Koray, T. (2002b). Toxic and harmful phytoplanktonic species in the Southern Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Eastern Aegean Sea and Northeastern Mediterranean coastline. 10. International Conference on Harmful Algae, 21-25 October 2002, St. Pete Beach, Florida, USA.
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  • Koray, T., Yurga, L. & Çolak-Sabancı, F. (2007). Türkiye Denizleri Mikroplankton (=Protista) Türlerinin Kontrol Listesi ve Tür Tayin Atlası. Proje No: TBAG-2239 (102T174), 154 pp.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Çevre Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Levent YURGA (Sorumlu Yazar)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4033-7567
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Ege University Faculty of Fisheries
Teşekkür This study was carried out by examining the plankton samples obtained from the bay monitoring projects organized by the Izmir Metropolitan Municipality and the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology of Dokuz Eylul University on a seasonal basis every year between 1990-2016. The author participated in the expeditions under the Expedition coordinator Prof.Dr. Bülent CİHANGİR and Res. Ass. Dr. Erkan DEMİRKURT and collected quality plankton samples and bottle quantity samples carried out sedimentations, microscope studies, entered the counting results and species lists into the spreadsheet software, and presented them to Prof.Dr. Tufan KORAY approved and carried out statistical work results seasonally 4 times a year as Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. Phytoplankton section of the projects. Res.Ass. Dr. Fatma ÇOLAK SABANCI contributed to the identification of species with a microscope (1997-2008) and sample collection (1998-2000). The faculty’s project coordinators, Prof.Dr. Mesut ÖNEN (1990-2004) and Assist. Fevzi KIRKIM (2004-2016) added all the other sections into the project and transferred them to Dokuz Eylül University Marine Sciences and Technology Institute project managers (Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Avni BENLİ, Prof. Dr. Bülent CİHANGİR, and Prof. Dr. Filiz KÜÇÜKSEZGİN). Ege University Faculty of Fisheries Department of Hydrobiology carried out the storage and evaluation of the plankton samples collected from the joint projects of Izmir Metropolitan Municipality and Dokuz Eylul University Marine Sciences and Technology Institute. I would like to thank all the staff above who contributed to the realization of this work.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Mart 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 1 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 21 Ocak 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 39, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Yurga, L. (2022). Investigation of harmful algae in İzmir Bay for the 30 years . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 39 (1) , 61-70 . Retrieved from http://www.egejfas.org/tr/pub/issue/68550/1031049