Research Article
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Evaluation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in aquaponic system in terms of food safety

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 1, 27 - 34, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.04

Abstract



We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeast, and molds that may occur in the system, and the quality of lettuce grown in aquaponics for consumers from sensory, colour, and texture points of view. The amount of yeast and mold in the plant growing medium (hydroton) and water was 4.67 log CFU/cm2 and 2.25 log CFU/mL at the end of the six-week experiment, respectively. The number of coliform bacteria and E. coli in the growing medium and in the system water was found to be 2.57 log CFU/cm2 and 3.46 log CFU/mL for coliform, 0.75 log CFU/cm2 0.31 log CFU/mL for E. coli, respectively. Organisms that pose a risk to food safety, accumulate in the culture media. After the harvest, lettuce cultured in the aquaponic system (AP) was compared with the lettuce cultured in soil (SC). According to the results, AP lettuce was found to have darker colors (Lightness: 56.4 AP, 49.09 SC, p<0.05), harder (Hardness: 209.3 AP, 153.7 SC, p<0.05), and slightly appetizing (Sensory analysis overall liking: 8.4 AP, 7.7 SC) than SC. In conclution, aquaponic systems are much more preferable in terms of sensory quality and consumer preferences than soil-based production systems.


Supporting Institution

Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University

Thanks

We thank the Sapanca Inland Fisheries Production Research and Application Unit staff. This work was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University. Project numbers FDK-2020-37081 and FBG-2018-31504.

References

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Marul bitkisinin (Lactuca sativa L.) akuaponik sistemde gıda güvenliği açısından değerlendirilmesi

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 1, 27 - 34, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.04

Abstract



Bu çalışmada, akuaponik sistemde üretilen marul bitkisinin duyusal tüketici tercihi, renk ve doku kalitesi açısından değerlendirilmiş ve sistemde oluşabilecek koliform bakteri, Escherichia coli, maya ve küf miktarları belirlenmiştir. Bitki yetiştirme ortamındaki (hidroton) ve sudaki maya-küf miktarları, altı haftalık deneyin sonunda sırasıyla 4,67 log KOB/cm2 ve 2,25 log KOB/mL olarak tespit edilmiştir. Hidrotonda ve sistem suyundaki koliform bakteri miktarı sırasıyla 2,57 log KOB/cm2 ve 3,46 log KOB/mL, E. coli miktarı ise sırasıyla 0,75 log KOB/cm2 ve 0,31 log KOB/mL olarak bulunmuştur. Gıda güvenliği açısından risk oluşturan mikroorganizmalar yetiştiricilik ortamında birikebilmektedir. Akuaponik sistemde (AP) yetiştirilen marul hasat edildikten sonra topraklı tarımda (TT) üretilen marul ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuçlara göre AP marulun renkleri TT'den daha koyu (Parlaklık: 56,4 AP, 49,09 TT, p<0,05), daha sert (Sertlik: 209,3 AP, 153,7 TT, p<0,05) ve duyusal analize göre daha iştah açıcı (Genel duyusal beğenisi: 8,4 AP, 7,7 TT) bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak akuaponik sistemler duyusal kalite ve tüketici tercihleri açısından topraklı üretim sistemlerine göre daha çok tercih edilmiştir.



References

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  • Atique, F., Lindholm-Lehto, P., & Pirhonen, J. (2022). Is Aquaponics Beneficial in Terms of Fish and Plant Growth and Water Quality in Comparison to Separate Recirculating Aquaculture and Hydroponic Systems?. Water, 14(9), 1447. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091447
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  • Blancheton J.P., Attramadal K.J.K., Michaud L., D’Orbcastel E.R., & Vadstein O. (2013). Insight into bacterial population in aquaculture systems and its implication. Aquaculture Engineering 53, 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2012.11.009
  • Brashears, M.M., & Durre, W.A. (1999). Antagonistic Action of Lactobacillus lactis toward Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during Growth and Refrigerated Storage. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 1336–1340. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.11.1336
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  • Fox, B.K., Tamaru, C.S., Hollyer, J., Castro, L.F., Fonseca, J.M., Jay-Russell, M., & Low, T. (2022, August 4). A preliminary study of microbial water quality related to food safety in recirculating aquaponic fish and vegetable production systems. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/server/api/core/bitstreams/b92b8b32-2edc-468b-b4b3-80450c22ecc3/content
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  • Hoagland, L., Ximenes, E., Ku, S., Ladisch, M. (2018). Foodborne pathogens in horticultural production systems: ecology and mitigation. Scientia Horticulturae, 236, 192–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.03.040
  • Hollyer, J., Tamaru, C., Riggs, A., Klinger-Bowen, R., Howerton, R., Okimoto, D., Castro, L., Ron, T., Fox, B.K., Troegner, V., & Martinez, G. (2009). On-Farm Food Safety: Aquaponics. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa Food Safety and Technology FST-38: 1–7. http://byap.backyardmagazines.com/Travis/Safety.pdf (accessed 07.04.2022)
  • Holmes, S.C., Wells, D.E., Pickens, J.M., & Kemble, J.M. (2019). Selection of heat tolerant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars grown in deep water culture and their marketability. Horticulturae, 5(3), 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030050
  • Ibrahim, R., & Zuki, W.A.M. (2012). The Physico-Chemical Properties Of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa 'Grand Rapid') Grown Under Different Planting Methods. In H. Abdullah, M.N. Latifah (Eds.) VII International Postharvest Symposium 2012 (pp. 201-206). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Proceedings Book.
  • Kasozi, N., Abraham, B., Kaiser, H., & Wilhelmi, B. (2021). The complex microbiome in aquaponics: significance of the bacterial ecosystem. Annals of Microbiology, 71(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13213-020-01613-5
  • Khalil, S. (2018). Growth performance, nutrients and microbial dynamic in aquaponics systems as affected by water temperature. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 83(6), 388-394. https://doi.org/10.17660/eJHS.2018/83.6.7
  • Lei, C., & Engeseth, N.J. (2021). Comparison of growth characteristics, functional qualities, and texture of hydroponically grown and soil-grown lettuce. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, 150, 111931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111931
  • Mampholo, B.M., Maboko, M.M., Soundy, P., & Sivakumar, D. (2016). Phytochemicals and overall quality of leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties grown in closed hydroponic system. Journal of Food Quality, 39(6), 805–815. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12234
  • Martínez-Sánchez, A., Tudela, J.A., Luna, C., Allende, A., & Gil, M.I. (2011). Low oxygen levels and light exposure affect quality of fresh-cut Romaine lettuce. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 59(1), 34-42. https://doi.org/j.postharvbio.2010.07.005
  • Matthew T.M., Fannie, Z., Yukiko K.N., & Stanley T.O. (2011). Comparison between hydroponically and conventionally and organically grown lettuces for taste, odor, visual quality and texture: A pilot study. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(2), 4534. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.22017
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Gökhan TUNÇELLİ
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ VE HASTALIKLARI BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ ANABİLİM DALI, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK BİLİM DALI
0000-0003-1708-7272
Türkiye


İdil CAN TUNÇELLİ
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BALIKÇILIK VE SU ÜRÜNLERİ İŞLEME TEKNOLOJİSİ BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ İŞLEME TEKNOLOJİSİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-9999-6658
Türkiye


Devrim MEMİŞ
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ VE HASTALIKLARI BÖLÜMÜ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ ANABİLİM DALI, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK BİLİM DALI
0000-0001-7378-0165
Türkiye

Project Number FDK-2020-37081 and FBG-2018-31504
Publication Date March 15, 2023
Submission Date August 5, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 40 Issue: 1

Cite

APA
TUNÇELLİ, G., CAN TUNÇELLİ, İ., & MEMİŞ, D. (2023). Evaluation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in aquaponic system in terms of food safety. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.04