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Seasonal investigation of marine litter on beaches of Urla (Izmir/Turkey)

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1, 53 - 61, 15.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.38.1.06

Abstract



In this study, types and quantities of marine litter in Urla (İzmir) Kum Denizi Beach and Demircili Koyu Beach were determined seasonally between October 2017 and October 2018. At the beaches, marine litter larger than 2,5 centimetres were collected with 3 people along 2-meter lines, which are determined to be parallel to the sea. The collected litters were classified according to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP, 2009), quantities were determined and the pollution status of the beaches was evaluated according to the Clean Coast Index. A total of 1,265 litter from Kum Denizi Beach and 2,099 litter from Demircili Koyu Beach were collected. In total, 3,364 pieces of litter weighing 90.81 kg were collected from the two beaches. Among the litters collected, plastic litter was found to be dominant with 2,794 pieces. This was followed by 145 metals, 141 papers, 110 fabrics, 87 foam plastics, 42 wood, 32 glass, 8 other litters and 5 rubber. Given the seasonal averages of the clean coast index values; Kum Denizi Beach was found to be clean and Demircili Koyu Beach was found to be moderately polluted.


References

  • Alkalay, R., Pasternak, G., & Zask, A. (2007). Clean-coast index-A new approach for beach cleanliness assessment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 50(5–6), 352–362. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.10.002
  • Aydın, C., Güven, O., Salihoğlu, B., & Kıdeyş, A. E. (2016). The influence of land use on coastal litter: An approach to identify abundance and sources in the coastal area of cilician Basin, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 16(1), 29–39. DOI:10.4194/1303-2712-v16_1_04
  • Aytan, U., Sahin, F. B. E., & Karacan, F. (2019). Beach litter on Sarayköy Beach (SE Black Sea): density, composition, possible sources and associated organisms. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20(2), 137-145. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v20_2_06
  • BMGK, (2005): Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu 2005 tarihli A/60/L.22 sayılı Okyanus ve Denizler Kanunun 65-70. Maddeleri.
  • Cerim, H., Filiz, H., Gülsahin, A., & Erdem, M. (2014). Marine litter: composition in eastern Aegean coasts. OALib, 01(03), 1–7. DOI:10.4236/oalib.1100573
  • Chapman, M. G., & Clynick, B. G. (2006). Experiments testing the use of waste material in estuaries as habitat for subtidal organisms. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 338, 164–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.06.018
  • Di-Meglio, N., & Campana, I. (2017). Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 118, 155–166. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.026
  • Esensoy Şahin, F. B., Karacan, F., ve Aytan, Ü. (2018), Güneydoğu Karadeniz Rize Sarayköy Plajında Plastik Kirliliği, Aquatic Research, 1, (3), 127-135. DOI: 10.3153/AR18014
  • Galgani, F., Hanke, G., Werner, S. D. V. L., & De Vrees, L. (2013). Marine litter within the European marine strategy framework directive. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(6), 1055-1064.
  • GESAMP (Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution), (1991): The State of the Marine Environment. Rep. Stud. GESAMP No:39. 111pp. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Gönülal, O., Öz, İ., Güreşen, S. O., & Öztürk, B. (2016). Abundance and composition of marine litter around Gökçeada Island (Northern Aegean Sea). Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 19(4), 461-467. DOI: 10.1080/14634988.2016.1257898
  • Hengstmann, E., Gräwe, D., Tamminga, M., & Fischer, E. K. (2017). Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115(1–2), 297–306. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.12.026
  • Kızılelma, Z. (2017). İzmir körfezi kıyılarında oluşan katı atık kirliliğinin araştırılması, Ege Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 85s.
  • Kiessling T., Gutow L., & Thiel M. (2015). Marine litter as a habitat and dispersal vector. In M. Bergmann, L. Gutow & M. Klages (Eds.), Marine anthropogenic litter, pp. 141–181. Berlin: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3_6
  • Laist, D.W. (1987). Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18(6), 319–326. DOI:10.1016/S0025-326X(87)80019-X
  • Meteoblue, (2019). Meteorolojik arşiv Urla. Alıntılanma adresi: https://www.meteoblue.com/tr/hava/tahmin/archive/urla_t%C3%BCrkiye_298316?fcstlength=1m&year=2018&month=3 (22.05.2019)
  • Munari, C., Corbau, C., Simeoni, U., & Mistri, M. (2016). Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 483-490. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.010
  • Öztekin, A., Bat, L., & Gokkurt-Baki, O. (2019). Beach litter pollution in Sinop Sarikum Lagoon coast of the southern Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20(3), 197-205..
  • Öztekin, A., & Bat, L. (2017). Microlitter pollution in sea water: a preliminary study from Sinop Sarikum coast of the southern Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17, 1431-1440.
  • Pasternak, G., Zviely, D., Ribic, C. A., Ariel, A., & Spanier, E. (2017). Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114(2), 1036–1045. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.023
  • Ryan, P. G. (2015). A brief history of marine litter research. In Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 1-25). Springer, Cham. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3
  • Simeonova, A., Chuturkova, R., & Yaneva, V. (2017). Seasonal dynamics of marine litter along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 119(1), 110–118. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.035
  • Smith, S. D. A., Gillies, C. L., & Shortland-Jones, H. (2014). Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 88(1–2), 188–193. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.007
  • Terzi, Y. (2014). Orta ve Doğu Karadeniz kıyılarındaki ve trol sahalarındaki denizel çöplerin miktarının ve kompozisyonunun incelenmesi, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 82s.
  • Terzi, Y., & Seyhan, K. (2017). Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 120(1-2), 154-158 DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.041
  • Topcu, E. N., Tonay, A. M., Dede, A., Ozturk, A. A., & Ozturk, B. (2013). Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Marine Environmental Research, 85, 21-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.12.006
  • Vişne, A. & Bat, L. (2015). Deniz çöplerinin değerlendirilmesi üzerine deniz stratejisi çerçeve direktifi ve Karadeniz’deki mevcut durum. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research, 1(3), 104-115.
  • UNEP: United Nations Environmet Programme (2005): Marine Litter, an analytical overview. Nairobi 2005.
  • UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme; Cheshire, A.C., Adler, E., Barbière, J., Cohen, Y., Evans, S., Jarayabhand, S., Jeftic, L., Jung, R.T., Kinsey, S., Kusui, E.T.,
  • Lavine, I., Manyara, P., Oosterbaan, L., Pereira, M.A., Sheavly, S., Tkalin, A., Varadarajan, S., Wenneker, B., Westphalen, G. (2009). UNEP/IOC Guidelines on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 186; IOC Technical Series No. 83: xii + 120 pp

Urla (İzmir/Türkiye) kumsallarında deniz çöplerinin mevsimsel olarak araştırılması

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1, 53 - 61, 15.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.38.1.06

Abstract



Bu çalışmada, Urla (İzmir) Kum Denizi Plajı ve Demircili Koyu Plajı’ndaki deniz çöplerinin cins ve miktarları Ekim 2017- Ekim 2018 tarihleri arasında mevsimsel olarak incelenmiştir. Plajlarda, 2,5 santimetreden büyük olan deniz çöpleri denize paralel olacak şekilde belirlenen 2 metrelik hatlar boyunca 3 kişi ile toplanmıştır. Toplanan çöpler Birleşmiş Milleteler Çevre Programı (UNEP= United Nations Environment Program) (2009)’e göre sınıflandırılmış, miktarları belirlenmiş ve temiz kıyı indeksine göre plajların kirlilik durumu değerlendirilmiştir. Kum Denizi Plajı’ndan toplamda 1,265 adet çöp ve Demircili Koyu Plajı’ndan ise 2,099 adet çöp toplanmıştır. Her iki plajdan toplamda 90,81 kg ağırlığında 3,364 adet çöp toplanmıştır. Toplanan çöpler arasında 2,794 adet ile en fazla plastik çöp bulunmuştur. Bunu 145 adet metal, 141 adet kağıt, 110 adet tekstil, 87 adet köpük plastik, 42 adet ahşap, 32 adet cam, 8 adet diğer çöpler ve 5 adet kauçuk izlemiştir. Temiz kıyı indeksi hesaplarına mevsim ortalamasına göre bakıldığında; Kum Denizi Plajı temiz, Demircili Koyu Plajı ise orta kirlilikte bulunmuştur.


References

  • Alkalay, R., Pasternak, G., & Zask, A. (2007). Clean-coast index-A new approach for beach cleanliness assessment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 50(5–6), 352–362. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.10.002
  • Aydın, C., Güven, O., Salihoğlu, B., & Kıdeyş, A. E. (2016). The influence of land use on coastal litter: An approach to identify abundance and sources in the coastal area of cilician Basin, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 16(1), 29–39. DOI:10.4194/1303-2712-v16_1_04
  • Aytan, U., Sahin, F. B. E., & Karacan, F. (2019). Beach litter on Sarayköy Beach (SE Black Sea): density, composition, possible sources and associated organisms. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20(2), 137-145. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v20_2_06
  • BMGK, (2005): Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu 2005 tarihli A/60/L.22 sayılı Okyanus ve Denizler Kanunun 65-70. Maddeleri.
  • Cerim, H., Filiz, H., Gülsahin, A., & Erdem, M. (2014). Marine litter: composition in eastern Aegean coasts. OALib, 01(03), 1–7. DOI:10.4236/oalib.1100573
  • Chapman, M. G., & Clynick, B. G. (2006). Experiments testing the use of waste material in estuaries as habitat for subtidal organisms. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 338, 164–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.06.018
  • Di-Meglio, N., & Campana, I. (2017). Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 118, 155–166. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.026
  • Esensoy Şahin, F. B., Karacan, F., ve Aytan, Ü. (2018), Güneydoğu Karadeniz Rize Sarayköy Plajında Plastik Kirliliği, Aquatic Research, 1, (3), 127-135. DOI: 10.3153/AR18014
  • Galgani, F., Hanke, G., Werner, S. D. V. L., & De Vrees, L. (2013). Marine litter within the European marine strategy framework directive. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(6), 1055-1064.
  • GESAMP (Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution), (1991): The State of the Marine Environment. Rep. Stud. GESAMP No:39. 111pp. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Gönülal, O., Öz, İ., Güreşen, S. O., & Öztürk, B. (2016). Abundance and composition of marine litter around Gökçeada Island (Northern Aegean Sea). Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 19(4), 461-467. DOI: 10.1080/14634988.2016.1257898
  • Hengstmann, E., Gräwe, D., Tamminga, M., & Fischer, E. K. (2017). Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115(1–2), 297–306. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.12.026
  • Kızılelma, Z. (2017). İzmir körfezi kıyılarında oluşan katı atık kirliliğinin araştırılması, Ege Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 85s.
  • Kiessling T., Gutow L., & Thiel M. (2015). Marine litter as a habitat and dispersal vector. In M. Bergmann, L. Gutow & M. Klages (Eds.), Marine anthropogenic litter, pp. 141–181. Berlin: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3_6
  • Laist, D.W. (1987). Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18(6), 319–326. DOI:10.1016/S0025-326X(87)80019-X
  • Meteoblue, (2019). Meteorolojik arşiv Urla. Alıntılanma adresi: https://www.meteoblue.com/tr/hava/tahmin/archive/urla_t%C3%BCrkiye_298316?fcstlength=1m&year=2018&month=3 (22.05.2019)
  • Munari, C., Corbau, C., Simeoni, U., & Mistri, M. (2016). Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 483-490. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.010
  • Öztekin, A., Bat, L., & Gokkurt-Baki, O. (2019). Beach litter pollution in Sinop Sarikum Lagoon coast of the southern Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20(3), 197-205..
  • Öztekin, A., & Bat, L. (2017). Microlitter pollution in sea water: a preliminary study from Sinop Sarikum coast of the southern Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17, 1431-1440.
  • Pasternak, G., Zviely, D., Ribic, C. A., Ariel, A., & Spanier, E. (2017). Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114(2), 1036–1045. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.023
  • Ryan, P. G. (2015). A brief history of marine litter research. In Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 1-25). Springer, Cham. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3
  • Simeonova, A., Chuturkova, R., & Yaneva, V. (2017). Seasonal dynamics of marine litter along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 119(1), 110–118. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.035
  • Smith, S. D. A., Gillies, C. L., & Shortland-Jones, H. (2014). Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 88(1–2), 188–193. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.007
  • Terzi, Y. (2014). Orta ve Doğu Karadeniz kıyılarındaki ve trol sahalarındaki denizel çöplerin miktarının ve kompozisyonunun incelenmesi, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 82s.
  • Terzi, Y., & Seyhan, K. (2017). Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 120(1-2), 154-158 DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.041
  • Topcu, E. N., Tonay, A. M., Dede, A., Ozturk, A. A., & Ozturk, B. (2013). Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Marine Environmental Research, 85, 21-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.12.006
  • Vişne, A. & Bat, L. (2015). Deniz çöplerinin değerlendirilmesi üzerine deniz stratejisi çerçeve direktifi ve Karadeniz’deki mevcut durum. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research, 1(3), 104-115.
  • UNEP: United Nations Environmet Programme (2005): Marine Litter, an analytical overview. Nairobi 2005.
  • UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme; Cheshire, A.C., Adler, E., Barbière, J., Cohen, Y., Evans, S., Jarayabhand, S., Jeftic, L., Jung, R.T., Kinsey, S., Kusui, E.T.,
  • Lavine, I., Manyara, P., Oosterbaan, L., Pereira, M.A., Sheavly, S., Tkalin, A., Varadarajan, S., Wenneker, B., Westphalen, G. (2009). UNEP/IOC Guidelines on Survey and Monitoring of Marine Litter. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 186; IOC Technical Series No. 83: xii + 120 pp

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Environmental Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Zeynep GÜNGÖREN (Primary Author)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5289-622X
Türkiye


Aslı BAŞARAN
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2477-9704
Türkiye

Supporting Institution EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ BİLİMSEL ARAŞTIRMA PROJELERİ KOORDİNASYON BİRİMİ
Project Number 1112/18-ÇSUAM-001
Thanks Bu çalışma, Yüksek Lisans tezinden hazırlanmış olup, Ege Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi tarafından ID: 1112/18-ÇSUAM-001 proje numarası ile desteklenmiştir. Bilimsel Araştırma Koordinasyon Birimi’ne desteğinden dolayı teşekkür ederim.
Publication Date March 15, 2021
Application Date February 10, 2020
Acceptance Date September 3, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 1

Cite

APA Güngören, Z. & Başaran, A. (2021). Urla (İzmir/Türkiye) kumsallarında deniz çöplerinin mevsimsel olarak araştırılması . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 38 (1) , 53-61 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.38.1.06