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Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3, 139 - 146, 01.09.2013

Abstract

References

  • Acres, J., Gray, J., 1978. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 119, 1195-1197.
  • Anderson, D.M., Bricelj, V.M., Lee, J.H., Cembella, A.D., 1990. Uptake kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 63: 177–188. doi: 10.3354/meps063177
  • Anderson D.M., 1994. Red Tides. Scientific American, 271(2): 52-58. doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican0894-62
  • Anderson, D.M., 2009. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms. Ocean Coastal Management,52(7):342. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.04.006
  • Andrinolo, D., Michea, L., Lagos, N., 1999. Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) in cats. Toxicon, 37(3): 447-464. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(98)00173-1
  • Andrinolo, D., Iglesias, V., García C., Lagos, N., 2002. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of gonyautoxins after an oral toxin dose in cats. Toxicon, 40 (6): 699-709. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00263-X
  • Anonymous, 2011. Red Tide <http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/redtide> (10.03.2012).
  • Anonymous, 2012. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish outbreaks <www.cdc.gov> (26.02.2012).
  • Anonymous, 2013a. T.C. Başbakanlık Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Avlanan deniz ürünleri miktarı <www.tuik.gov.tr> (25.07.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013b. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish poisoning <www.cdc.gov> (10.05.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013c. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish outbreaks <www.cdc.gov> (26.06.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013d. T.C. Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı Gıda Kontrol Genel Müdürlüğü. Hayvansal gıdaların resmi kontrollerine ilişkin özel kuralları belirleyen yönetmelik, Hayvansal gıdalar için özel hijyen kuralları yönetmeliği <www.gkgm.gov.tr> (20.06.2013).
  • Bower, D.J., Hart, R.J., Matthews, P. A., Howden, M. E., 1981. Nonprotein neurotoxins. Clinical Toxicology, 18(7): 813-843. 10.3109/15563658108990310
  • Bravo, I., Reyero, M.I., Cacho, E., Franco, J.M., 1999. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Haliotis tuberculata from the Galician coast: geographical distribution, toxicity by lengths and parts of the mollusc. Aquatic Toxicology, 46(2): 79-85. doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(98)00122-2
  • Bricelj, V.M., Connel, L., Konoki, K., Macquarrie, S. P., Scheuer, T., Catterall, W.A., Trainer, V.L., 2005. Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increase risk of PSP. Nature, 434: 763-767. doi: 10.1038/nature03415
  • Burchell, B., Bierley, C.H., Rance, D., 1995. Specificity of human UDP glucuronosyltransferases and xenobiotics glucuronidation. Life Science, 57(20): 1819–1831. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(95)02073-R
  • Cembella, A.D., Shumway, S.E., Lewis, N., 1993. Anatomical distribution and spatio temporal variation in paralytic shellfish toxin composition in two bivalve species from the gulf of Maine. Journal of Shellfish Research, 12: 389– 403.
  • Concon, J.M., 1988. Toxicology of Marine Foods In: Food Toxicology, M. Dekker (ed.), New York, pp. 511-542.
  • Erol, I., 2007. Gıda Hijyeni ve Mikrobiyolojisi. Pozitif matbaacılık, Ankara, Türkiye, 227 s.
  • Etheridge, S., 2010. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Seafood safety and human health perpectives. Toxicon, 56: 108-122.
  • 1016/j.toxicon.2009.12.013
  • Franquelo, F., Dominguez Picon, F., Cruz – Conde de boom, R., Tellez Lagos, N., 1998. Microalgal blooms: A global issue with negative impact in Chile. Biological Research, 31(4): 375-386.
  • Garcia, C., Bravo, M.C., Lagos, M., Lagos, N., 2004. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords. Toxicon, 43(2): 149–158. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2003.11.018
  • Garcia, C., Lagos, M., Truan, D., Lattes, K., Véjar, O., Chamorro, B., Iglesias, V., Andrinolo, D., Lagos, N., 2005. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: Clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine. Biological Research, 38(2-3): 197-205. doi: 10.4067/S0716-97602005000200009
  • Garcia, C., Rodrıguez-Navarro, A., Diaz, J.C., Torres, R., Lagos, N., 2009. Evidence of in vitro glucuronidation and enzymatic transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins by healthy human liver microsomes fraction. Toxicon, 53(2): 206–213. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.10.028
  • Gerssen, A., Pol-Hofstad, I.E., Poelman, M., Mulder, P. P.J., van den Top, H.J., de Boer, J., 2010. Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection, with Special Reference to the Dutch Situation. Toxins, 2: 878-904. doi: 10.3390/toxins2040878
  • Gessner, B.D., Middaugh, J.P., 1995. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Alaska: a 20 year retrospective analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141(8): 766-770.
  • Gessner, B.D., Bell, P., Doucette, G.J., Moczydlowski, E., Poli, M.A., Dolah, F.V., Hall, S., 1997. Hypertension and identification of toxin in human urine and serum following a cluster of mussel-associated paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks. Toxicon, 35(5): 711-722. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(96)00154-7
  • Hall, S., 1982. Toxins and toxicity of Protogonyaulax from the northeast doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00176-9 Pacific . Ph.D . Thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK. crab Telmessus acutidens. Toxicon, 40(11): 1593-1599.
  • Hallegraef, G.M., 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia, 32(2): 79-99. doi: 10.2216/i0031-8884-32-2-79.1
  • Halstead, B.W. , Schantz, E.J., 1984. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. World health organization, Geneva: WHO Offset publication, 79: 1-60.
  • Hoeger, S., Shaw, G., Hitzfeld, B., Dietrich, D., 2004. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in two Australian drinking water treatment plants. Toxicon, 43(6): 639-649. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.019
  • Humpage, A.R., Magalhaes, V.F., Froscio, S.M., 2010. Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397(5): 1655-1671. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-3459-4
  • Kao, D.Y., 1993. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. In: Algal Toxins in seafood and drinking water, I.R. Falconer (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 75-86. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-091811-2.50009-5
  • Kılıç, S., 2006. Biyolojik silah olarak toksinler. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, 63(1): 85-106.
  • Kodama, M., Sato, S., 2000. Seafood and Freswater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. Marcel Dekker, New York, 165-175 p.
  • Kodama, M., 2010. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: biochemistry and origin. Aqua- BioScience Monographs, 3(1): 1-38. doi: 10.5047/absm.2010.00301.0001
  • Kvitek, R.G., 1991. Paralytic shellfish toxins sequestered by bivalves as a defense against siphon-nipping fish. Marine Biology, 11 (3): 369-374. doi: 10.1007/BF01319408
  • Kvitek, R.G., De gange, A.R., Beitle, M.K., 1991. Paralytic Shelfish Poisoning Toxins Mediate Feeding Behavior of Sea Otters. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(2): 393-404. doi: 10.4319/lo.1991.36.2.0393
  • Kwong, R., Wang, V., Lamb, P., Yu, P., 2006. The uptake, distribution and elimination of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels and fish exposed to toxic dinoflagellates. Aquat. Toxicology, 80(1): 82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.07.016
  • Lehane, L., 2001. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a potential public health problem. Medical Journal of Australia, 175(1): 29–31.
  • Llewellyn, L.E., Dodd, M.J., Robertson, A., Ericson,G., Koning,C., Negri, A.P., 2002. Post-mortem analysis of samples from a human victim of a fatal poisoning caused by the xanthid crab, Zosimus aeneus. Toxicon, 40(10): 1463-1469. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00164-2
  • Levin, R.E., 1992. Paralytic shellfish toxins: their origins, characteristics, and methods of detection: a review. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 15(6): 405–417. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.1991.tb00425.x
  • Mons, M.N., Egmond, V., Speıjers, G.J.A., 1998. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review. National Instute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven, the Netherlands.,1-47 p.
  • Naseem, S.M., 1996. Toxicokinetics of [3H] Saxitoxinol in Peripheral and Central Nervous System of Rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 141: 49-58.
  • Negri, A.P., Jones, G.J., 1995. Bioaccumulation of paralytic shelllfish poisoning (PSP) toxins from the cynobacterium Anabaena circinalis by the freshwater mussel Alathyria condola. Toxicon, 33: 667-678. doi: 10.1016/0041-0101(94)00180-G
  • Newcombe, G., Nicholson, B., 2004. Water Treatment Options For Dissolved Cyanotoxins. Journal of water supply: research and technology, 227-239.
  • Oikawa, H., Fujita, T., Satomi, M., Suzuki, T., Kotani, Y., Yano, Y., 2002.
  • Oshima, Y., Yasumoto, T., Karunasaga, R.I., 1990. A toxin profile for shellfish involved in an outbreak of paralyti shellfish poisoning in India. Toxicon, 28(7): 868-870.
  • Oshima, Y., 1989. Toxins in Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and infested marine organims. In: Hallegraeff, G. M., MacLean, J. L., eds. Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Pyrodinium Red Rides, Management and TrainingWorkshop. Manila: ICLARM, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brueni Darussalam, 73–79 p.
  • Oshima, Y., 1995. Postcolumn derivatization liquid-chromatographic method for paralytic shellfish toxins. Journal of AOAC International, 78(2): 528–532.
  • Rapala, J., Robertson, A., Negri, A.P., Berg, K.A., Tuomi, P., Lyra, C., Erkomaa, K., Lahti, K., Hoppu, K., Lepisto, L., 2005. First Report of Saxitoxin in Finnish Lakes and Possible Associated Effects on Human Health.Environmental Toxicology, 20 (3): 331-340. 10.1002/tox.20109
  • Shimizu, Y., Yoshıoka, M., 1981. Transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins as demonstrated in scallop homogenates. Science, 212: 546- 547. doi: 10.1126/science.7209548
  • Sullivan, J.J., 1988. Methods of analysis for DSP and PSP toxins in shellfish: a review. Journal of Shellfish Research, 7: 587-595.
  • Usup, G., Leaw, C.P., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A., Boon-Koon, N.G., 2004. Analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin congeners by a sodium channel receptor binding assay. Toxicon, 44(1): 37–43. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.03.026
  • Wang, D., 2008. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review. Marine Drugs, 6(2): 349-371. doi: 10.3390/md20080016
  • Wiese, M., D’agostino, P.M., Mihali, T.K., Moffitt, M.C., Neilan, B.A., 2010. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs. Marine Drugs, 8: 2185-2211. doi: 10.3390/md8072185
  • Wright, J.L.C., 1995. Dealing with seafood toxins: present approaches and future options. Food Research International, 28: 347- 358. doi: 10.1016/0963-9969(95)00001-3
  • Yen, I.C., Astudillo, L.R., Soler, J.F., Barbera-Sanchez, A., 2006. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profiles in gren mussels from Trinidad and Venezuela. Journal of Food Compoition and Analysis, 19 (1): 88-94.
  • 1016/j.jfca.2004.11.006
  • Yoshida, T., Sako, Y., Uchida, A., Ishida, Y., Arakawa ,O., Noguchi, T.,
  • Purification and properties of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins
  • sulfotransferase from toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.
  • Intergovermental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, 499- 502.

Kabuklu deniz hayvanlarından kaynaklanan paralitik zehirlenme.

Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3, 139 - 146, 01.09.2013

Abstract

Kabuklu deniz hayvanlarının tüketimine bağlı olarak gelişen zehirlenmelerin içinde en yüksek ölüm oranını paralitik kaynaklı zehirlenmesi oluşturmaktadır. Paralitik gıda zehirlenmesi, filtrasyon yoluyla toksini bünyelerine alan kabukluların tüketimiyle vücuda alınan toksinlerin etkisini çok kısa sürede göstermesi ve etkili bir tanı ve tedavi edilmezse 24 saat içinde ölümle sonuçlanan tablolara sebebiyet vermesinden dolayı halk sağlığı açısından oldukça önemli bir konumdadır. İlk kez Saxidomus giganteus isimli midyede belirlendiği için ismi saksitoksin olarak tanımlanmıştır. Toksinin pişirme, ısıtma, dondurma, buhar uygulaması gibi işlemlerden etkilenmemesi halk sağlığı açısından önemini arttırmaktadır. Ayrıca toksin taşıyan dinoflagellatların suda yaşamaları için optimum şartlar sağlandığında sayılarını hızlı bir şekilde artırarak su ve çevre kirliliğine neden olmaktadırlar. İnsan sağlığı yanında çevre sağlığı ve sularda yaşayan diğer canlıların sağlığını da olumsuz etkilemektedirler. Bu noktadan yola çıkarak bu derlemede toksinin genel özellikleri, toksini taşıyan canlılar, biyotransformasyonu, analiz yöntemleri, detoksifikasyonu gibi halk ve çevre sağlığını ilgilendiren konular hakkında bilgi verilmiştir

References

  • Acres, J., Gray, J., 1978. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 119, 1195-1197.
  • Anderson, D.M., Bricelj, V.M., Lee, J.H., Cembella, A.D., 1990. Uptake kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 63: 177–188. doi: 10.3354/meps063177
  • Anderson D.M., 1994. Red Tides. Scientific American, 271(2): 52-58. doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican0894-62
  • Anderson, D.M., 2009. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms. Ocean Coastal Management,52(7):342. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.04.006
  • Andrinolo, D., Michea, L., Lagos, N., 1999. Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) in cats. Toxicon, 37(3): 447-464. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(98)00173-1
  • Andrinolo, D., Iglesias, V., García C., Lagos, N., 2002. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of gonyautoxins after an oral toxin dose in cats. Toxicon, 40 (6): 699-709. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00263-X
  • Anonymous, 2011. Red Tide <http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/redtide> (10.03.2012).
  • Anonymous, 2012. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish outbreaks <www.cdc.gov> (26.02.2012).
  • Anonymous, 2013a. T.C. Başbakanlık Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Avlanan deniz ürünleri miktarı <www.tuik.gov.tr> (25.07.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013b. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish poisoning <www.cdc.gov> (10.05.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013c. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Paralytic shellfish outbreaks <www.cdc.gov> (26.06.2013).
  • Anonymous, 2013d. T.C. Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı Gıda Kontrol Genel Müdürlüğü. Hayvansal gıdaların resmi kontrollerine ilişkin özel kuralları belirleyen yönetmelik, Hayvansal gıdalar için özel hijyen kuralları yönetmeliği <www.gkgm.gov.tr> (20.06.2013).
  • Bower, D.J., Hart, R.J., Matthews, P. A., Howden, M. E., 1981. Nonprotein neurotoxins. Clinical Toxicology, 18(7): 813-843. 10.3109/15563658108990310
  • Bravo, I., Reyero, M.I., Cacho, E., Franco, J.M., 1999. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Haliotis tuberculata from the Galician coast: geographical distribution, toxicity by lengths and parts of the mollusc. Aquatic Toxicology, 46(2): 79-85. doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(98)00122-2
  • Bricelj, V.M., Connel, L., Konoki, K., Macquarrie, S. P., Scheuer, T., Catterall, W.A., Trainer, V.L., 2005. Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increase risk of PSP. Nature, 434: 763-767. doi: 10.1038/nature03415
  • Burchell, B., Bierley, C.H., Rance, D., 1995. Specificity of human UDP glucuronosyltransferases and xenobiotics glucuronidation. Life Science, 57(20): 1819–1831. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(95)02073-R
  • Cembella, A.D., Shumway, S.E., Lewis, N., 1993. Anatomical distribution and spatio temporal variation in paralytic shellfish toxin composition in two bivalve species from the gulf of Maine. Journal of Shellfish Research, 12: 389– 403.
  • Concon, J.M., 1988. Toxicology of Marine Foods In: Food Toxicology, M. Dekker (ed.), New York, pp. 511-542.
  • Erol, I., 2007. Gıda Hijyeni ve Mikrobiyolojisi. Pozitif matbaacılık, Ankara, Türkiye, 227 s.
  • Etheridge, S., 2010. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Seafood safety and human health perpectives. Toxicon, 56: 108-122.
  • 1016/j.toxicon.2009.12.013
  • Franquelo, F., Dominguez Picon, F., Cruz – Conde de boom, R., Tellez Lagos, N., 1998. Microalgal blooms: A global issue with negative impact in Chile. Biological Research, 31(4): 375-386.
  • Garcia, C., Bravo, M.C., Lagos, M., Lagos, N., 2004. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords. Toxicon, 43(2): 149–158. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2003.11.018
  • Garcia, C., Lagos, M., Truan, D., Lattes, K., Véjar, O., Chamorro, B., Iglesias, V., Andrinolo, D., Lagos, N., 2005. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: Clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine. Biological Research, 38(2-3): 197-205. doi: 10.4067/S0716-97602005000200009
  • Garcia, C., Rodrıguez-Navarro, A., Diaz, J.C., Torres, R., Lagos, N., 2009. Evidence of in vitro glucuronidation and enzymatic transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins by healthy human liver microsomes fraction. Toxicon, 53(2): 206–213. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.10.028
  • Gerssen, A., Pol-Hofstad, I.E., Poelman, M., Mulder, P. P.J., van den Top, H.J., de Boer, J., 2010. Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection, with Special Reference to the Dutch Situation. Toxins, 2: 878-904. doi: 10.3390/toxins2040878
  • Gessner, B.D., Middaugh, J.P., 1995. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Alaska: a 20 year retrospective analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141(8): 766-770.
  • Gessner, B.D., Bell, P., Doucette, G.J., Moczydlowski, E., Poli, M.A., Dolah, F.V., Hall, S., 1997. Hypertension and identification of toxin in human urine and serum following a cluster of mussel-associated paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks. Toxicon, 35(5): 711-722. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(96)00154-7
  • Hall, S., 1982. Toxins and toxicity of Protogonyaulax from the northeast doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00176-9 Pacific . Ph.D . Thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK. crab Telmessus acutidens. Toxicon, 40(11): 1593-1599.
  • Hallegraef, G.M., 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia, 32(2): 79-99. doi: 10.2216/i0031-8884-32-2-79.1
  • Halstead, B.W. , Schantz, E.J., 1984. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. World health organization, Geneva: WHO Offset publication, 79: 1-60.
  • Hoeger, S., Shaw, G., Hitzfeld, B., Dietrich, D., 2004. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in two Australian drinking water treatment plants. Toxicon, 43(6): 639-649. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.019
  • Humpage, A.R., Magalhaes, V.F., Froscio, S.M., 2010. Comparison of analytical tools and biological assays for detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397(5): 1655-1671. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-3459-4
  • Kao, D.Y., 1993. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. In: Algal Toxins in seafood and drinking water, I.R. Falconer (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 75-86. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-091811-2.50009-5
  • Kılıç, S., 2006. Biyolojik silah olarak toksinler. Türk Hijyen ve Deneysel Biyoloji Dergisi, 63(1): 85-106.
  • Kodama, M., Sato, S., 2000. Seafood and Freswater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. Marcel Dekker, New York, 165-175 p.
  • Kodama, M., 2010. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: biochemistry and origin. Aqua- BioScience Monographs, 3(1): 1-38. doi: 10.5047/absm.2010.00301.0001
  • Kvitek, R.G., 1991. Paralytic shellfish toxins sequestered by bivalves as a defense against siphon-nipping fish. Marine Biology, 11 (3): 369-374. doi: 10.1007/BF01319408
  • Kvitek, R.G., De gange, A.R., Beitle, M.K., 1991. Paralytic Shelfish Poisoning Toxins Mediate Feeding Behavior of Sea Otters. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(2): 393-404. doi: 10.4319/lo.1991.36.2.0393
  • Kwong, R., Wang, V., Lamb, P., Yu, P., 2006. The uptake, distribution and elimination of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels and fish exposed to toxic dinoflagellates. Aquat. Toxicology, 80(1): 82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.07.016
  • Lehane, L., 2001. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a potential public health problem. Medical Journal of Australia, 175(1): 29–31.
  • Llewellyn, L.E., Dodd, M.J., Robertson, A., Ericson,G., Koning,C., Negri, A.P., 2002. Post-mortem analysis of samples from a human victim of a fatal poisoning caused by the xanthid crab, Zosimus aeneus. Toxicon, 40(10): 1463-1469. doi: 10.1016/S0041-0101(02)00164-2
  • Levin, R.E., 1992. Paralytic shellfish toxins: their origins, characteristics, and methods of detection: a review. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 15(6): 405–417. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.1991.tb00425.x
  • Mons, M.N., Egmond, V., Speıjers, G.J.A., 1998. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review. National Instute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven, the Netherlands.,1-47 p.
  • Naseem, S.M., 1996. Toxicokinetics of [3H] Saxitoxinol in Peripheral and Central Nervous System of Rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 141: 49-58.
  • Negri, A.P., Jones, G.J., 1995. Bioaccumulation of paralytic shelllfish poisoning (PSP) toxins from the cynobacterium Anabaena circinalis by the freshwater mussel Alathyria condola. Toxicon, 33: 667-678. doi: 10.1016/0041-0101(94)00180-G
  • Newcombe, G., Nicholson, B., 2004. Water Treatment Options For Dissolved Cyanotoxins. Journal of water supply: research and technology, 227-239.
  • Oikawa, H., Fujita, T., Satomi, M., Suzuki, T., Kotani, Y., Yano, Y., 2002.
  • Oshima, Y., Yasumoto, T., Karunasaga, R.I., 1990. A toxin profile for shellfish involved in an outbreak of paralyti shellfish poisoning in India. Toxicon, 28(7): 868-870.
  • Oshima, Y., 1989. Toxins in Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and infested marine organims. In: Hallegraeff, G. M., MacLean, J. L., eds. Biology, Epidemiology and Management of Pyrodinium Red Rides, Management and TrainingWorkshop. Manila: ICLARM, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brueni Darussalam, 73–79 p.
  • Oshima, Y., 1995. Postcolumn derivatization liquid-chromatographic method for paralytic shellfish toxins. Journal of AOAC International, 78(2): 528–532.
  • Rapala, J., Robertson, A., Negri, A.P., Berg, K.A., Tuomi, P., Lyra, C., Erkomaa, K., Lahti, K., Hoppu, K., Lepisto, L., 2005. First Report of Saxitoxin in Finnish Lakes and Possible Associated Effects on Human Health.Environmental Toxicology, 20 (3): 331-340. 10.1002/tox.20109
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yağmur Nil DEMİREL This is me


T. Haluk ÇELİK This is me

Publication Date September 1, 2013
Application Date December 7, 2015
Acceptance Date September 24, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3

Cite

APA Demirel, Y. N. & Çelik, T. H. (2013). Kabuklu deniz hayvanlarından kaynaklanan paralitik zehirlenme. . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 30 (3) , 139-146 . Retrieved from http://www.egejfas.org/en/pub/issue/4988/67588