Research Article
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Çeşitli antioksidanların hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus) yağının oksidatif stabilitesi üzerine etkileri

Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 4, 367 - 372, 15.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.36.4.07

Abstract



Bu çalışmanın amacı, balık yağında depolanma sırasındaki oksidasyonu değerlendirmek için kullanılan dört ticari antioksidanı (A (300 mg propil gallat (PG)+10 mg biberiye ekstraktı (BE)/1000 mg, B (240 mg bütil hidroksi anisol (BHA)+80 mg PG+80 mg sitrik asit (SA)/1000 mg, C (120 mg BHA+120 mg PG+50 mg SA)/ 1000 mg, D (150 mg bütil hidroksi toluene (BHT)+100 mg BHA+10 mg PG)/1000 mg) incelemektir. Antioksidanlar, hangilerinin oksidasyonun önlenmesinde en etkili olduğunu belirlemek için balık yağına eklenmiş ve balık yağları, 90 gün boyunca oda sıcaklığında (20 °C) amber şişelerde saklanmıştır. Kontrol numuneleri aynı koşullar altında muhafaza edilmiş ve antioksidan eklenmemiştir. Antioksidanların etkisini belirlemek için, deney gruplarında üretici firma tarafından önerilen ticari antioksidan dozu (1000 mg kg-1 balık yağına) kullanılmıştır. Balık yağı depolama denemesinde birincil ve ikincil oksidasyon ürünlerinin oluşumu, peroksit değeri (PV) ve p-anisidin değeri (AV) analizleri yapılarak incelenmiştir. PV ve AV ölçümlerine dayanarak toplam oksidasyon değeri (TOTOX) hesaplanmıştır. İlk 30 gün boyunca balık yağının peroksit değerlerinde küçük değişiklikler gözlenmiştir. Çalışmada, antioksidan takviyeli örnekler B, C, D > 5 meq kg-1), 45. günde okside olmuş, ancak kontrol ve A grubu 75. günde okside olmuştur. Bazı antioksidanlar için olası bir prooxidatif etki görülmüştür. Balık yağının sekonder oksidasyonunda küçük değişiklikler gerçekleşmiş ve depolama süresi boyunca dört antioksidan grubunun da AV değişiklikleri üzerinde önemli bir etkisi olmamıştır (p>0.05). İlaveten TOTOX 90 günlük depolama boyunca GOED (< 26) limiti altında hesaplanmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda kontrol örnekleri ile antioksidan ilaveli örnekler arasında önemli fark bulunmamıştır (P>0.05).  90 günlük çalışmanın sonunda elde edilen sonuçlara göre antioksidanların hiçbirinin verimli bir şekilde kullanılmadığı tespit edilmiştir.




References

  • Aidos, I., Lourenço, S., Van der Padt, A., Luten, J. B., & Boom, R. M. (2002). Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh by products: influence of temperature during storage. Journal of Food Science, 67(9), 3314–3320. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb09585.x
  • AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 15th ed. Washington. DC.
  • AOCS. (2017a). Sampling and Analysis of Commercial Fats and Oils. Official Methods and Recommended Practises, AOCS official method Cd 18-90, P-anisidine value; Cd 18-90. Champaign. Illinois: American Oil Chemists Society.
  • AOCS, (2017b). Sampling and Analysis of Commercial Fats and Oils. Official Methods and Recommended Practises. AOCS official method Cd 8-53, Peroxide value; Cd 8-53. Champaign, Illinois: American Oil Chemists Society.
  • Baek, N. (2012). Effects of natural antioxidants on lipid oxidation of menhaden oil, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Msc Thesis. 103 pp.
  • Boran, G. (2004). Change of fish quality due to storage temperature and time. Karadeniz Technical University, Msc Thesis. 67 pp.
  • Carvajal, A. K., Mozuraityte, R., Standal, I. B., Storrø, I. & Aursand, A. (2014). Antioxidants in fish oil production for improved quality. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 91:1611–1621. DOI:10.1007/s11746-014-2508-0
  • Chandrasekar, V., Belur, P. D. & Regupathi, I. (2016). Effect of hydroxybenzoic acids antioxidants on the oxidative stability of sardine oil. Resource-Efficient Technologies, 2, 114–118. DOI:10.1016/j.reffit.2016.11.008
  • Drusch, S., Groß, N. & Schwarz, K. (2008). Efficient stabilization of bulk fish oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110:351-359. DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200700195
  • Eritsland, J. (2000). Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(1 SUPPL.), 2–6. DOI:10.1093/ajcn/71.1.197s
  • Fakir, A. D. & Waghmare, J. S. (2015). Effect of various antioxidants on solvent extracted Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger Kanagurta) fish oil, Advances in Applied Science Research, 6(5), 37–42.
  • Fennema, O. R. (2008). Lipids. In Damodaran, S., Parkin, K. L., Fennema, O. R. (ed.) Fennema's Food Chemistry, (pp 155-212). Great Britain: CRC Press. Frankel, E.N. (2005). Lipid oxidation, Bridgewater: Philadelphia-USA: Oily Press.
  • GOED, (2019). GOED voluntary monograph (v. 7): Global Organisation for EPA and DHA omega-3s. Retrieved from https://goedomega3.com/storage/app/ media /Governance%20docs/goed-monograph-2019- 03-01-r.pdf, 06 April 2019.
  • Hertrampf, J.W. & Piedad -Pascual, F. (2000). Handbook on ingredients for aquaculture feeds. Dordrech-Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Hraš, A. R., Hadolin, M., Knez, Ž. & Bauman, D. (2000). Comparison of antioxidative and synergistic effects of rosemary extract with α-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid in sunflower oil. Food Chemistry, 71(2), 229–233. DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00161-8
  • Iqbal, S. & Bhanger, M.I. (2007). Stabilization of sunflower oil by garlic extract during accelerated storage. Food Chemistry, 100, 246–254. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.049
  • Kasbo, M. K. (2011). Antioxidants stabilizing fish oils effect of antioxidant, storage temperature and type of fish oil. Norwegian Universitey, Msc Thesis. 126 pp.
  • Korkut, A.Y., Kop, A. & Demir, P. (2007). Fish oil, used in fish feeds and its characteristics. Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 24(1-2): 195–199.
  • Kulas, E. & Ackman, R. G. (2001). Protection of α-tocopherol in nonpurified and purified fish oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 78(2), 197–203. DOI:10.1007/s11746-001-0243-x
  • Morales-Medina, R., García-Moreno, P. J., Muñío, M. M., Guadix, A. & Guadix, E. M. (2015). Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil. Grasas Aceites, 66(2), e069. DOI:10.3989/gya.0694141
  • O’Sullivan, A., Mayr, A., Shaw, N. B., Murphy, S. C. & Kerry, J. P. (2005). Use of Natural Antioxidants to Stabilize Fish Oil Systems. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 14(3), 75–94. DOI:10.1300/j030v14n03_06
  • Palupi, N. W., Maryanto, M. & Purwowibowo, E. (2016). Relationship antioxidant concentration and volume headspace on the rancidity of fish oil during storage. Jurnal Teknologi, 78(4–2), 159–165. DOI:10.11113/jt.v78.8199
  • Tsimidou, M., Papavergou, E. & Boskou, D. (1995). Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil. Food Research International, 28(4), 431–433. DOI:10.1016/0963-9969(95)00031-G
  • Wang, H., Liu, F., Yang, L., Zu, Y., Wang, H., Qu, S. & Zhang, Y. (2011). Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage. Food Chemistry, 128(1), 93–99. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.082

Effects of various antioxidants on oxidative stability of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) oil

Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 4, 367 - 372, 15.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.36.4.07

Abstract



The aim of study was to investigate four commercial available antioxidants (groups A (300 mg propyl gallate (PG)+10 mg rosemary extract (RE)/1000 mg), B (240 mg butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA)+80 mg PG+80 mg citric acid (CA)/1000 mg), C (120 mg BHA+120 mg PG+50 mg CA)/1000 mg), D (150 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)+100 mg BHA+10 mg PG)/1000 mg) used to evaluate oxidation during the storage in fish oil. Antioxidants were added to the fish oil to determine which ones were most effective in preventing oxidation, and fish oil was stored in the amber bottles at room temperature (20 °C) for 90 days. The control group samples were stored under the same conditions and antioxidant was not added. To determine the effect of antioxidants, the recommended by the manufacturer dose of commercial antioxidant (1000 mg kg-1 fish oil) was used in the experimental groups. The formation of the primary and secondary oxidation products in fish oil storage trial was examined by conducting the peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (AV) analyses. The total oxidation value (TOTOX) was calculated based on the PV and AV measurements. Minor changes were observed in the PV of the fish oil during the first 30 days. In the study, antioxidant added samples (groups B, C, D > 5 meq kg-1) were oxidized on the 45th day; on the other hand both control and group A oxidized on the 75th day. A possible prooxidative effect was seen for some of the antioxidants. There was a very little change secondary oxidation of fish oil and no significant effects of all four antioxidant groups on the changes of AV (<20) during the storage period (P>0.05). In addition TOTOX was calculated under GOED (<26) limit during the storage for 90 days. At the end of the study, control samples were not significantly different from the other samples with antioxidant-added. Due to the results obtained at the end of the 90-day study, it was found that none of the antioxidants were used efficiently in this study.  




References

  • Aidos, I., Lourenço, S., Van der Padt, A., Luten, J. B., & Boom, R. M. (2002). Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh by products: influence of temperature during storage. Journal of Food Science, 67(9), 3314–3320. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb09585.x
  • AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 15th ed. Washington. DC.
  • AOCS. (2017a). Sampling and Analysis of Commercial Fats and Oils. Official Methods and Recommended Practises, AOCS official method Cd 18-90, P-anisidine value; Cd 18-90. Champaign. Illinois: American Oil Chemists Society.
  • AOCS, (2017b). Sampling and Analysis of Commercial Fats and Oils. Official Methods and Recommended Practises. AOCS official method Cd 8-53, Peroxide value; Cd 8-53. Champaign, Illinois: American Oil Chemists Society.
  • Baek, N. (2012). Effects of natural antioxidants on lipid oxidation of menhaden oil, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Msc Thesis. 103 pp.
  • Boran, G. (2004). Change of fish quality due to storage temperature and time. Karadeniz Technical University, Msc Thesis. 67 pp.
  • Carvajal, A. K., Mozuraityte, R., Standal, I. B., Storrø, I. & Aursand, A. (2014). Antioxidants in fish oil production for improved quality. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 91:1611–1621. DOI:10.1007/s11746-014-2508-0
  • Chandrasekar, V., Belur, P. D. & Regupathi, I. (2016). Effect of hydroxybenzoic acids antioxidants on the oxidative stability of sardine oil. Resource-Efficient Technologies, 2, 114–118. DOI:10.1016/j.reffit.2016.11.008
  • Drusch, S., Groß, N. & Schwarz, K. (2008). Efficient stabilization of bulk fish oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110:351-359. DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200700195
  • Eritsland, J. (2000). Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(1 SUPPL.), 2–6. DOI:10.1093/ajcn/71.1.197s
  • Fakir, A. D. & Waghmare, J. S. (2015). Effect of various antioxidants on solvent extracted Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger Kanagurta) fish oil, Advances in Applied Science Research, 6(5), 37–42.
  • Fennema, O. R. (2008). Lipids. In Damodaran, S., Parkin, K. L., Fennema, O. R. (ed.) Fennema's Food Chemistry, (pp 155-212). Great Britain: CRC Press. Frankel, E.N. (2005). Lipid oxidation, Bridgewater: Philadelphia-USA: Oily Press.
  • GOED, (2019). GOED voluntary monograph (v. 7): Global Organisation for EPA and DHA omega-3s. Retrieved from https://goedomega3.com/storage/app/ media /Governance%20docs/goed-monograph-2019- 03-01-r.pdf, 06 April 2019.
  • Hertrampf, J.W. & Piedad -Pascual, F. (2000). Handbook on ingredients for aquaculture feeds. Dordrech-Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Hraš, A. R., Hadolin, M., Knez, Ž. & Bauman, D. (2000). Comparison of antioxidative and synergistic effects of rosemary extract with α-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid in sunflower oil. Food Chemistry, 71(2), 229–233. DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00161-8
  • Iqbal, S. & Bhanger, M.I. (2007). Stabilization of sunflower oil by garlic extract during accelerated storage. Food Chemistry, 100, 246–254. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.049
  • Kasbo, M. K. (2011). Antioxidants stabilizing fish oils effect of antioxidant, storage temperature and type of fish oil. Norwegian Universitey, Msc Thesis. 126 pp.
  • Korkut, A.Y., Kop, A. & Demir, P. (2007). Fish oil, used in fish feeds and its characteristics. Ege University Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 24(1-2): 195–199.
  • Kulas, E. & Ackman, R. G. (2001). Protection of α-tocopherol in nonpurified and purified fish oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 78(2), 197–203. DOI:10.1007/s11746-001-0243-x
  • Morales-Medina, R., García-Moreno, P. J., Muñío, M. M., Guadix, A. & Guadix, E. M. (2015). Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil. Grasas Aceites, 66(2), e069. DOI:10.3989/gya.0694141
  • O’Sullivan, A., Mayr, A., Shaw, N. B., Murphy, S. C. & Kerry, J. P. (2005). Use of Natural Antioxidants to Stabilize Fish Oil Systems. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 14(3), 75–94. DOI:10.1300/j030v14n03_06
  • Palupi, N. W., Maryanto, M. & Purwowibowo, E. (2016). Relationship antioxidant concentration and volume headspace on the rancidity of fish oil during storage. Jurnal Teknologi, 78(4–2), 159–165. DOI:10.11113/jt.v78.8199
  • Tsimidou, M., Papavergou, E. & Boskou, D. (1995). Evaluation of oregano antioxidant activity in mackerel oil. Food Research International, 28(4), 431–433. DOI:10.1016/0963-9969(95)00031-G
  • Wang, H., Liu, F., Yang, L., Zu, Y., Wang, H., Qu, S. & Zhang, Y. (2011). Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage. Food Chemistry, 128(1), 93–99. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.082

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mehmet Gökhan SOYDAN This is me
MUGLA SITKI KOCMAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9756-0797


Fatime ERDOĞAN (Primary Author)
MUĞLA SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ORTACA MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU, SU ÜRÜNLERİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-4376-4372
Türkiye

Publication Date December 15, 2019
Application Date April 18, 2019
Acceptance Date August 3, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 4

Cite

APA Soydan, M. G. & Erdoğan, F. (2019). Effects of various antioxidants on oxidative stability of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) oil . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 36 (4) , 367-372 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.36.4.07