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Yasadışı trol balıkçılığının engellenmesi için bir öneri: Anti-trol yapay resif uygulaması ve tasarım ölçütleri

Year 2016, Volume 33, Issue 1, 27 - 34, 23.03.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.1.05

Abstract

Çalışma, yasadışı trol avcılığının yoğun olduğu İzmir Orta Körfezi’ni “örnek olay” biçiminde derinlemesine incelenmesini ve çözüm için planlanan ön hazırlıkları kapsamaktadır. Balıkçı barınakları, balıkçı tekneleri (boy, motor gücü, avcılık ruhsatı vb.) ve trol ağı özellikleri (yatay ağız açıklığı, YA; ağ uzunluğu, AU vb.) tespit edilmiştir. İzmir’de 2010-2014 yılları arasında, Sahil Güvenlik unsurları tarafından yasadışı avcılık faaliyeti sırasında yakalanan trol teknesi 160 civarındadır. Yasadışı avcılık noktalarına ait koordinatlar deniz haritası üzerinde işaretlenmiştir. İzmir genelinde 12 m’den küçük teknelerle kaçak avcılığın yapıldığı ve motor güçlerinin 7-452 kW arasında değiştiği belirlenmiştir. İzmir Körfezi’nde yakalananların %98,2’si trol avcılığı ruhsatı olmayan ve maksimum 286 kW motor gücüne sahip teknelerdir. Bu teknelerin %64’ü Güzelbahçe, Çamaltı Tuzlası ile Hekim Adası ve Çiçek Adaları arasında kalan alanda yakalanmıştır. Buradan yola çıkarak yasadışı trol faaliyetlerinin anti-trol yapay resifleri (ATYR) ile engelleme yoluna gidilmiş, “Güzelbahçe Y. Resif Sahası” ve “Tuzla Y. Resif Sahası” olmak üzere iki adet ATYR alanı belirlenmiştir. Kültür ve tabiat varlıklarının korunması için belirlenen dalışa yasak sahalar, bölgede yürütülmüş önceki yapay resif projeleri, iç körfezin temizlenmesi sırasında kullanılan döküntü sahası, yasal avcılık faaliyetleri, İzmir Körfezi’ndeki dalga yüksekliği verileri ve su derinlikleri dikkate alınmıştır. Donatılı betondan imal edilecek ATYR ağırlığı 2,9 ton ve boyutu 110x110x100 cm3 olarak hesaplanmıştır. ATYR bloklarının sahile paralel yerleştirildiği durumda, bloklar arası mesafeyi (BAM) bulmak için çelik halat uzunluğu (CU), palamar halatı uzunluğu (PU) ve ağ uzunluğundan (AU) av takımının toplam boyu (TB) 167 m olarak bulunmuştur. Sahile dik yerleştirilmesinde en küçük yasadışı trol teknesi temel alınmış, YA, AU, PU verilerinden trol kapıları arası mesafe (KM) 22 m olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak, 23-47 m derinlikler için, 200X25 m2 ’lik düzenle, 0,2 ha/adet yoğunlukta, her iki bölge için 6808 adet ATYR’ye ihtiyaç duyulmuştur. Projenin tamamlanma süresi 9 ay, maliyeti (inşa, nakliye, atım, kiralama bedeli vb.) 8.046.856 TL olarak ön görülmüştür.

References

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  • Düzbastılar, F.O. & Tokaç, A. (2003). Determination of effects of artificial reef size on local scouring phenomena resulting from wave action (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20:(3-4), 373-381.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O., Tosunoğlu, Z. & Kaykaç, H. (2003). Resistance calculation of the conventional and tailored demersal trawl nets with their gears theoretically (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 20 (1-2), 15-25.
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A case study for preventing illegal trawl fishery: The application of antitrawl artificial reef and design criteria

Year 2016, Volume 33, Issue 1, 27 - 34, 23.03.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.1.05

Abstract

The case study was carried out to prevent illegal trawl fisheries in İzmir Bay. Fishing ports, fishing vessels (length, engine power, commercial fishing licence etc.) and trawl net specifications (horizontal mouth opening, NH; trawl net length, NL etc.) were surveyed. The number of trawlers fishing illegally off İzmir which were seized by Turkish Coast Guard (TCG) between 2010 and 2014 was approximate 160. The plots of illegal trawlers caught in fishing area by TCG were marked on the map. It was obtained that trawlers fishing illegally smaller than 12 m and engine power of vessels were between 7 and 452 kW in İzmir. 98.2% of seized illegal trawlers in İzmir Bay had no fishing license and had maximum 286 kW engine power. Of these, 64% of trawlers were caught near coasts of Tuzla and Güzelbahçe localities. Therefore, two artificial reef sites (Tuzla and Güzelbahçe) were concluded in the Middle Bay of İzmir. While planning the project, banned dive sites for Preservation of Culture and Natural Heritage, previous artificial reef projects in the area, mud disposal site that is used during the cleaning of the inner bay, legal fishing activities, wave and current data in İzmir Bay and water depths were considered. Anti-trawl blocks were planned to construct reinforced concrete with 2.9 tones and 110x110x100 cubic centimeter. In the case where anti-trawl reefs are placed parallel to the coastline, total length of trawl gear (LG) was found as 167 m from the distance between the blocks (DB); warp length (WL), sweep length (SL), and NL. In other case (perpendicular to the coastline), minimum trawler was considered and distance between trawl doors (TD) was found as 22 m from NH, NL and, SL. Consequently, the distance between anti-trawl blocks and deployment depths were determined as between 25-200 m and 23-47 m, respectively. The protection ratio was 0.2 ha/number and total number of anti-trawl reefs was estimated as 6,808 for two artificial reef sites. The duration of the project was expected as nine months and the total budget of the project (construction, transportation, deployment, renting etc.) was estimated as 8,046,856 TL.

References

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  • Akyol, O. & Ceyhan, T. (2009). Catch per unit effort of coastal prawn trammel net fishery in İzmir Bay, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Marine Science, 10 (1): 19-23.
  • Allemand, D., Debernardi, E. & Seaman, W. (2000). Artificial reefs in the principality of Monaco: Protection and enhancement of coastal zones. In: Jensen A., Collins K., Lockwood A. (Eds), Artificial Reefs in European Seas (pp. 151-166). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publ
  • Ayaz, A., Ünal, V. & Özekinci, U. (2004). An investigation on the determination of amount of lost set net which cause to ghost fishing in İzmir Bay (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21(1-2): 35-38.
  • Baine, M. (2001). Artificial reefs: A review of their design, application, management and performance, Ocean & Coastal Management, 44: 241-259.
  • Bombace, G., Fabi, G. & Fiorentini, L. (1993). Census results on artificial reefs in the Mediterranean Sea, Bollettino Di Oceanologia Teoretica Ed Applicata, 11, (3-4), 257-263.
  • BSGM, 2012. Notification No. 2012/65 regulating commercial fisheries (in Turkish). Retrieved from http://mevzuat.basbakanlik.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=9.5.16536&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=3/1 (20.09.2015)
  • Düzbastılar, F.O. (2003). Comparison of local scour depths and wave-current characteristics of cubic artificial reef models deployed in different arrangements (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20 (3-4), 383-390.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O. & Tokaç, A. (2003). Determination of effects of artificial reef size on local scouring phenomena resulting from wave action (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20:(3-4), 373-381.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O., Tosunoğlu, Z. & Kaykaç, H. (2003). Resistance calculation of the conventional and tailored demersal trawl nets with their gears theoretically (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 20 (1-2), 15-25.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O. & Lök, A. (2004). Primary materials in construction of artificial reefs (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21, (1-2), 181-185.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O., Lök, A., Ulaş, A. & Metin, C. (2006). Recent developments on artificial reef applications in Turkey: Hydraulic experiments, Bulletin of Marine Science, 78 (1), 195-202.
  • Düzbastılar, F.O. & Şentürk, U. (2009). Determining the weights of two types of artificial reefs required to resist wave action in different water depths and bottom slopes, Ocean Engineering, 36 (12-13), 900-913. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2009.06.008
  • Fabi, G. (2006). Le barriere artificiali in Italia (Artificial reefs in Italy). In: Campo Sperimentale in Mare: Prime Esperienze Nel Veneto Relative a Elevazioni del Fondale Con Materiale Inerte, pp. D.P. Maria Grazia pp. 20-34.
  • Gökçe, G., Metin, C., Aydın, İ. & Bayramiç, İ. (2005). The common squid (Loligo vulgaris Lam., 1798) fishery with shrimp trammel net in Izmir Bay (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 22, (3-4), 419-422.
  • Gökçe, G. & Çekiç, M. (2009). Artificial reef application for fishing in northern Mediterranean Sea (in Turkish). In: 13. Underwater Science and Technology Conference, 7-8 November, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, pp. 93-97.
  • Gökçe, G. (2013). Artificial anti-trawling reef project Adana, Turkey. In: The 10th International Conference on Artificial Reefs and Aquatic Habitats, 23-27 September, İzmir, pp. 65.
  • Guillén, J.E., Ramos, A.A., Martínez, L. & Sánchez Lizaso, J.L. (1994). Antitrawling reefs and the protection of Posidionia oceanica (L) Delile meadows in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Demand and aims, Bulletin of Marine Science, 55: (2-3), 645-650.
  • Hermsen, J.M., Collie, J.S. & Valentine, P.C. (2003). Mobile fishing gear reduces benthic megafaunal production on Georges Bank, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 260: 97–108. doi: 10.3354/meps260097
  • Iannibelli, M. & Musmarra, D. (2008). Effects of anti-trawling artificial reefs on fish assemblages: The case of Salerno Bay (Mediterranean Sea), Italian Journal of Zoology, 75:4, 385-394. doi: 10.1080/11250000802365290
  • Jennings, S., Dinmore, T.A., Duplisea, D.E., Warr, K.J. & Lancaster, J.E. (2001). Trawling disturbance can modify benthic production processes, Journal of Animal Ecology, 70: 459–475. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2656.2001.00504.x
  • Jensen, A. (2002). Artificial reefs of Europe: Perspective and future, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 3-13. doi: 10.1006/jmsc.2002.1298
  • Jensen, A.C., Collins, K.L. & Lockwood, A.P.M. (2000). Current issues relating to artificial reefs in European Seas. In: A.C. Jensen, K.J., Collins and A.P.M., Lockwood (Eds.), Artificial Reefs in European Seas (pp. 489-499), U.K.
  • Kaykaç, M.H., Zengin, M., Özcan-Akpınar, İ. & Tosunoğlu, Z. (2014). Structural characteristics of towed fishing gears used in the Samsun coast (Black Sea) (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 31, (2), 87-96. doi: 10.12714/egejfas.2014.31.2.05
  • Kara, A. & Özekinci, U. (2002). Selectivity of gillnets used in Sardine fishing (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) in Izmir Bay (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19, (3-4), 465-472.
  • Kuperan, K. & Sutinen, J.G. (1998). Blue water crime: Deterrence, legitimacy, and compliance in fisheries, Wiley on behalf of the Law and Society Association, Law & Society Review, 32 (2), 309-338.
  • Lewison, R.L., Crowder, L.B., Read, A.J. & Freeman, S.A. (2004). Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna, TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19 (11), 598-604.
  • Lök, A. (1995). A study on the feasibility of artificial reefs (PhD Thesis) (in Turkish with English abstract), Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fishing Technology Department, Code No: 10.7777.1800.000, Bornova-İzmir, 54pp.
  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O. & Tokaç, A. (2002). Artificial reefs in Turkey, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59, 192-195.
  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Gül, B., Özgül, A. & Aydın, İ. (2009). Introduction of national artificial reef programme of Turkey. In: F.P. Brandini (Ed.). 9th CARAH-International Conference on Artificial Reefs and Related Aquatic Habitats (pp. 49), November 8-13, Universidade Posistivo, Curitiba, PR-Brasil
  • Lök, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Gül, B., Özgül, A. & Ulaş, A. (2011). The role of artificial reefs in fisheries management in Turkey. In: S. A. Bortone, F.P. Brandini, G. Fabi and S. Otake (Eds.), Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management Chap. 10 (pp. 155-166), USA: CRC Press,.
  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Düzbastılar, F.O., Ulaş, A. & Özgül, A. (2013). Research report on a study on observation of fish community structure and physicochemical parameters (in Turkish), Ege University, Research and Application Center of Underwater, Bornova, İzmir, 21.
  • Lukens, R. R. (2004). Guidelines for marine artificial reef materials (2nd Edition). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, No. 121, 198 p.
  • Metin, C., Tosunoğlu, Z., Tokaç, A. Lök, A., Aydın, C. & Kaykaç, H. (2000). Seasonal variations of demersal fish composition in Gülbahçe Bay (İzmir Bay), Turkish Journal of Zoology, 24: 437-446.
  • Metin, C. & Gökçe, G. (2004). Catch composition of trammel nets using in shrimp fisheries in Izmir Bay (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21, (3-4), 325-329.
  • Muñoz-Pérez, J.J., Gutiérrez Mas, J.M., Naranjo, J.M., Torres, E. & Fages, L. (2000). Position and monitoring of anti-trawling reefs in the Cape of Trafalgar (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain), Bulletin of Marine Science, 67 (2), 761-772.
  • Newman, S. (2015). A case study on illegal fishing and the role of rights-based fisheries management in improving compliance. Case study compiled as part of the EFFACE project. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy. Retrieved from http://efface.eu/sites/default/files/EFFACE_Illegal%20fishing and%20the%20role%20of%20rights%20based%20fisheries%20management%20in%20improving%20compliance_0.pdf, (20.09.2015)
  • OSPAR Commission (2006). Assessment and monitoring series: Overview of OSPAR assessments 1998-2006, publication number: 287/2006, ISBN: 1-905859-25-2, 89p. Retrieved from (http://www.ospar.org/about/publications?q=1-905859-25-2&a=7460&y=2006&s=4), (10.09.2015).
  • Özgül, A., Lök, A., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Tanrıkulu, T.T. & Pelister, C. (2013a). Determination of fish movement patterns in artificial reef areas (in Turkish). In: The 17th National Fisheries Symposium, 3-6 September, İstanbul, pp. 115-116.
  • Özgül, A., Lök, A., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Tanrıkulu, T.T. & Pelister, C. (2013b). Residency, home range, and habitat utilization of Scieana umbra, Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena scrofa in artificial reefs using acoustic telemetry. In: 10th CARAH, İzmir, Turkey, Sep. 23-27, 47.
  • Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D. & Jensen, A. (1998). Artificial reefs as a tool to aid rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems: Investigating the potential, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37:(8-12), 505-514.
  • Pitcher, T.J., Watson, R., Forrest, R., Valtýsson, H. & Guénette, S. (2002). Estimating illegal and unreported catches from marine ecosystems: A basis for change, Fish and Fisheries, 3, 317-339.
  • -
  • Ramos-Esplá A.A., Guillénn J.A., Bayle J.T. & Sánchez-Jérez P. (2000). Artificial anti-trawling reefs off Alicante, South-Eastern Iberian Peninsula: Evolution of reef block and set designs. In: A.C. Jensen, K. Collins, A. Lockwood, (Eds), Artificial Reefs in European Seas (pp. 195-218), Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publ.,
  • Relini, G., Relini, M., Palandri, G., Merello, S. & Beccornia, E. (2007). History, ecology and trends for artificial reefs of the Ligurian sea, Italy, Hidrobiologia, 580, 193-217.
  • Revenga, S., Fernandez, F., Gonzalez, J.L. & Santaella, E. (1997). Artificial reefs in Spain: the regulatory framework. In: A.C. Jensen (Ed.), European Artificial Reef Research (pp. 123-140), Proceedings of the first EARRN conference. March 1996 Ancona, Italy
  • -
  • Revenga, S. (2007). Artificial reefs in Spain. In: Design and management of artificial reefs for fisheries, Zaragoza, CHIEAM, Spain, 7-11 May 2007 (Lecture’s notes-unpublished).
  • Sainsbury, J.C. (1996). Commercial fishing methods an introduction to vessels and gears. 3rd Edition. Fishing News Books. 359 p.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A. (1996). Detection of envrionmental impacts by bottom trawling on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows: Sensivity of fish and Macroinvertebrate communities, Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health, 5: 239-253.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A. (2000). Changes in fish assemblages associated with the deployment of an antitrawling reef in seagrass meadows, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 129:1150-1159.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P., Gillanders, B.M., Rodríguez-Ruiz, S. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A., (2002). Effect of an artificial reef in Posidonia meadows on fish assemblage and diet of Diplodus annularis, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 59-68. doi: 10.1006/jmsc.2002.1213
  • SGK (2015). Coast Guard Command. Retrieved from http://www.sgk.tsk.tr/ baskanliklar/plan_prensipler/gorevler/gorevler.asp , (10.09.2015).
  • SHOD (1983). The Aegean Sea Meteorological Atlas (in Turkish), Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, Turkish Naval Forces Publications, İstanbul.
  • Ulaş, A. (2000). A Research on natural and artificial habitats of octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier, 1797) in the Middle of İzmir Bay (PhD Thesis) (in Turkish with English abstract), Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fishing Technology Department, Code No: 504.06.01, Bornova, İzmir, 72pp.

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Year 2016, Volume 33, Issue 1, 27 - 34, 23.03.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.1.05

Abstract

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References

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  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O. & Tokaç, A. (2002). Artificial reefs in Turkey, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59, 192-195.
  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Gül, B., Özgül, A. & Aydın, İ. (2009). Introduction of national artificial reef programme of Turkey. In: F.P. Brandini (Ed.). 9th CARAH-International Conference on Artificial Reefs and Related Aquatic Habitats (pp. 49), November 8-13, Universidade Posistivo, Curitiba, PR-Brasil
  • Lök, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Gül, B., Özgül, A. & Ulaş, A. (2011). The role of artificial reefs in fisheries management in Turkey. In: S. A. Bortone, F.P. Brandini, G. Fabi and S. Otake (Eds.), Artificial Reefs in Fisheries Management Chap. 10 (pp. 155-166), USA: CRC Press,.
  • Lök, A., Metin, C., Düzbastılar, F.O., Ulaş, A. & Özgül, A. (2013). Research report on a study on observation of fish community structure and physicochemical parameters (in Turkish), Ege University, Research and Application Center of Underwater, Bornova, İzmir, 21.
  • Lukens, R. R. (2004). Guidelines for marine artificial reef materials (2nd Edition). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, No. 121, 198 p.
  • Metin, C., Tosunoğlu, Z., Tokaç, A. Lök, A., Aydın, C. & Kaykaç, H. (2000). Seasonal variations of demersal fish composition in Gülbahçe Bay (İzmir Bay), Turkish Journal of Zoology, 24: 437-446.
  • Metin, C. & Gökçe, G. (2004). Catch composition of trammel nets using in shrimp fisheries in Izmir Bay (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21, (3-4), 325-329.
  • Muñoz-Pérez, J.J., Gutiérrez Mas, J.M., Naranjo, J.M., Torres, E. & Fages, L. (2000). Position and monitoring of anti-trawling reefs in the Cape of Trafalgar (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain), Bulletin of Marine Science, 67 (2), 761-772.
  • Newman, S. (2015). A case study on illegal fishing and the role of rights-based fisheries management in improving compliance. Case study compiled as part of the EFFACE project. London: Institute for European Environmental Policy. Retrieved from http://efface.eu/sites/default/files/EFFACE_Illegal%20fishing and%20the%20role%20of%20rights%20based%20fisheries%20management%20in%20improving%20compliance_0.pdf, (20.09.2015)
  • OSPAR Commission (2006). Assessment and monitoring series: Overview of OSPAR assessments 1998-2006, publication number: 287/2006, ISBN: 1-905859-25-2, 89p. Retrieved from (http://www.ospar.org/about/publications?q=1-905859-25-2&a=7460&y=2006&s=4), (10.09.2015).
  • Özgül, A., Lök, A., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Tanrıkulu, T.T. & Pelister, C. (2013a). Determination of fish movement patterns in artificial reef areas (in Turkish). In: The 17th National Fisheries Symposium, 3-6 September, İstanbul, pp. 115-116.
  • Özgül, A., Lök, A., Ulaş, A., Düzbastılar, F.O., Tanrıkulu, T.T. & Pelister, C. (2013b). Residency, home range, and habitat utilization of Scieana umbra, Scorpaena porcus and Scorpaena scrofa in artificial reefs using acoustic telemetry. In: 10th CARAH, İzmir, Turkey, Sep. 23-27, 47.
  • Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D. & Jensen, A. (1998). Artificial reefs as a tool to aid rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems: Investigating the potential, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37:(8-12), 505-514.
  • Pitcher, T.J., Watson, R., Forrest, R., Valtýsson, H. & Guénette, S. (2002). Estimating illegal and unreported catches from marine ecosystems: A basis for change, Fish and Fisheries, 3, 317-339.
  • -
  • Ramos-Esplá A.A., Guillénn J.A., Bayle J.T. & Sánchez-Jérez P. (2000). Artificial anti-trawling reefs off Alicante, South-Eastern Iberian Peninsula: Evolution of reef block and set designs. In: A.C. Jensen, K. Collins, A. Lockwood, (Eds), Artificial Reefs in European Seas (pp. 195-218), Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publ.,
  • Relini, G., Relini, M., Palandri, G., Merello, S. & Beccornia, E. (2007). History, ecology and trends for artificial reefs of the Ligurian sea, Italy, Hidrobiologia, 580, 193-217.
  • Revenga, S., Fernandez, F., Gonzalez, J.L. & Santaella, E. (1997). Artificial reefs in Spain: the regulatory framework. In: A.C. Jensen (Ed.), European Artificial Reef Research (pp. 123-140), Proceedings of the first EARRN conference. March 1996 Ancona, Italy
  • -
  • Revenga, S. (2007). Artificial reefs in Spain. In: Design and management of artificial reefs for fisheries, Zaragoza, CHIEAM, Spain, 7-11 May 2007 (Lecture’s notes-unpublished).
  • Sainsbury, J.C. (1996). Commercial fishing methods an introduction to vessels and gears. 3rd Edition. Fishing News Books. 359 p.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A. (1996). Detection of envrionmental impacts by bottom trawling on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows: Sensivity of fish and Macroinvertebrate communities, Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health, 5: 239-253.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A. (2000). Changes in fish assemblages associated with the deployment of an antitrawling reef in seagrass meadows, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 129:1150-1159.
  • Sánchez-Jerez, P., Gillanders, B.M., Rodríguez-Ruiz, S. & Ramos-Esplá, A.A., (2002). Effect of an artificial reef in Posidonia meadows on fish assemblage and diet of Diplodus annularis, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 59-68. doi: 10.1006/jmsc.2002.1213
  • SGK (2015). Coast Guard Command. Retrieved from http://www.sgk.tsk.tr/ baskanliklar/plan_prensipler/gorevler/gorevler.asp , (10.09.2015).
  • SHOD (1983). The Aegean Sea Meteorological Atlas (in Turkish), Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, Turkish Naval Forces Publications, İstanbul.
  • Ulaş, A. (2000). A Research on natural and artificial habitats of octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier, 1797) in the Middle of İzmir Bay (PhD Thesis) (in Turkish with English abstract), Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Fishing Technology Department, Code No: 504.06.01, Bornova, İzmir, 72pp.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Marine Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mesut Ulugöl
0000-0001-5896-3959


F. Ozan Düzbastılar
0000-0001-5896-3959

Publication Date March 23, 2016
Application Date March 23, 2016
Acceptance Date September 17, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 33, Issue 1

Cite

APA Ulugöl, M. & Düzbastılar, F. O. (2016). Yasadışı trol balıkçılığının engellenmesi için bir öneri: Anti-trol yapay resif uygulaması ve tasarım ölçütleri . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 33 (1) , 27-34 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.1.05