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İzmir İç Körfezi sedimentinin Ames genotoksisite testi kullanılarak mutajenitesinin incelenmesi

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 3, 211 - 218, 15.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.3.08

Abstract

İzmir Körfezi, Ege Bölgesi'nin en önemli ekosistemlerinden biridir. Su ortamlarında çevre kirliliğinin etkileri, özellikle mutajenik ve kanserojen maddelerle oluşan kirliliğin insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkileri önemli bir araştırma konusudur. Bu nedenle kısa süreli biyolojik araştırma yöntemlerinin moleküler kimyasal analiz yöntemleriyle birleştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Ames testi ile çeşitli kimyasalların, çevresel kirleticilerin, sediment ve atık suların mutajenik potansiyelini belirlemek mümkündür. İzmir Körfezi’nde 2000 yılında arıtma tesisi kurulduktan sonra sedimentte mutajenite çalışması yapılmamıştır. Bu amaçla İç Körfez'deki altı istasyondan alınan sediment örneklerinde, mutajenik etki potansiyeline sahip kimyasal maddelerin olup olmadığını tespit etmek için dört farklı konsantrasyonda (125 μg, 250 μg, 375 μg ve 500 μg) Salmonella typhimurium TA98 ve TA100 suşları kullanılarak S9 fraksiyonu olmadan Ames'in mutajenite tarama testi yapıldı. Ames testinin sonuçlarına göre, İzmir Körfezi'ndeki altı istasyondan özellikle Turan Bölgesi'nin (tersanenin bulunduğu İstasyon 3) mutajenik ve toksik etki altında olduğu, Bostanlı Bölgesi'nin (İstasyon 6) ise yoğun toksik etki altında olduğu belirlendi. Turan Bölgesi, çerçeve kayması mutasyonlarına sebep olabilen çevresel kirleticilerin etkisi altındadır. Bu çalışmaya göre, İzmir İç Körfezi mutajenik ve toksik etkili maddelerle kirlenmiştir.

Ethical Statement

No specific ethical approval was necessary for this study.

Supporting Institution

The Coordination Board for Scientific Research Projects of Ege University (FGA-2019-20553)

Thanks

The present study was supported with project numbered FGA-2019-20553 by the Coordination Board for Scientific Research Projects of Ege University. We would like to thank them for their contribution.

References

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  • Atgın, R.S., El-Agha, O., Zararsız, A., Kocataş, A., Parlak, H., & Tuncel, G. (2000). Investigation of the sediment pollution in İzmir Bay: Trace Elements, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 55(7), 1151-1164. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(00)00231-7
  • Balcı, A., & Türkoğlu, M. (1993). Heavy metals in sediments from İzmir Bay, Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26(2), 106-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X (93)90100-X
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  • Haynes, D., & Johnson, J.E. (2000). Organochlorine, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollutant concentrations in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) environment: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41(7–12), 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X (00)00134-X
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  • İZSU (2016). Evaluation of the Physical, Chemical and Biological Effects and Results of the Circulation and Navigation Channels to be Opened Within the Scope of the İzmir Bay and Port Rehabilitation Project in the İzmir Bay Marine Environment (in Turkish). Final Report, Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, 293 p. https://www.izsu.gov.tr/tr/Dokumanlar/Liste/11
  • Kamra, O.P., Nestmann, E., Douglas, G., Kowbel, D., & Harrington, T. (1983). Genotoxic activity of pulp mill effluent in Salmonella and Saccharomyces cerevisiae assays. Mutation Research, 118, 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1218(83)90210-0
  • Katalay, S., Ayhan, M.M., Guler, C., Aldag, C., Kilic, T., & Yavasoglu, N.U.K. (2022). Cellular biomarkers in Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (Mediterranean mussels) from İzmir Bay (Turkey). Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 109(5),799-807. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-022-03597 1
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  • Pinto, E., Sigaud‐Kutner, T.C., Leitao, M.A., Okamoto, O.K., Morse, D., & Colepicolo, P. (2003). Heavy metal–induced oxidative stress in algae. Journal of Phycology, 39(6), 1008-1018. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.2003.02-193.x
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A mutagenicity investigation of sediment from İzmir Inner Bay using Ames genotoxicity assay

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 3, 211 - 218, 15.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.3.08

Abstract

İzmir Bay is one of the most important ecosystems of Aegean Region. Impacts of environmental pollution in the aquatic environments, especially impacts of pollution with mutagenic and carcinogenic substances on human health is an important area of research. Thus, it is required to incorporate short-term biological research methods to the molecular chemical analysis methods. By means of Ames’s assay, it is possible to determine mutagenic potential of several chemicals, environmental pollutants, sediments, and waste waters. After the treatment facility was established in İzmir Bay in 2000, no mutagenicity studies were carried out in the sediment. Ames’s mutagenicity assay without S9 fraction using TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium was done at four different concentrations (125 μg, 250 μg, 375 μg, and 500 μg) in the sediment samples from six stations on İzmir Inner Bay in order to detect presence of chemicals that may cause mutagenic effects. Based on the results of Ames’s assay, it was found that especially Turan Area (Station 3, on which shipyard is located) among 6 stations on İzmir Bay was under mutagenic and toxic effect and Bostanlı Area (Station 6) was under intense toxic effect. Turan Area was under the influence of environmental pollutants that may cause frameshift mutations. According to the present study, İzmir Inner Bay was contaminated by mutagenic and toxic substances.

Ethical Statement

No specific ethical approval was necessary for this study.

Supporting Institution

Coordination Board for Scientific Research Projects of Ege University (FGA-2019-20553)

References

  • Aközcan, S., & Görgün, A.U. (2013). Variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb concentration in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Didim and İzmir Bay (Turkish coast of Aegean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 68(1-2), 152-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.044
  • Ames, B., Sims, P., & Grover, P.L. (1972). Epoxides of carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons are frameshift mutagens. Science, 176(4033), 47-49. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.176.4030.47
  • Anonymous (2018). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. http://www.srtoxics.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/2018-HRC-report-on-Workers-Rights-EN.pdf
  • Arslan, O.C., Parlak, H., Katalay, S., Boyacıoglu, M., Karaaslan, M.A., & Güner, H. (2010). Detecting micronuclei frequency in some aquatic organisms for monitoring pollution of İzmir Bay (Western Turkey), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 165, 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0926-5
  • Atgın, R.S., El-Agha, O., Zararsız, A., Kocataş, A., Parlak, H., & Tuncel, G. (2000). Investigation of the sediment pollution in İzmir Bay: Trace Elements, Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 55(7), 1151-1164. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(00)00231-7
  • Balcı, A., & Türkoğlu, M. (1993). Heavy metals in sediments from İzmir Bay, Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26(2), 106-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X (93)90100-X
  • Balkas, I.T., & Juhasz, F. (1993). Costs and benefits of measures for the reduction of degradation of the environment from land-based sources of pollution in coastal area: a case study of İzmir Bay (Mediterranean Action Plan Technical Report Series No.72. UNEP. https://wedocs.unep.org/rest/bitstreams/1436/retrieve
  • Beşiktepe, S.T., Sayın, E., İlhan, T., & Tokat, E. (2011). Investigation of the current dynamics of İzmir Bay with the help of models and observations. 7th Coastal Engineering Symposium, (427-437) Trabzon, Türkiye. (Proceedings Book). (In Turkish with English abstract). Boyacıoğlu, M. (1999). Investigation of genotoxic effects of sediments of İzmir Bay. Doctoral dissertation, Institute of Science of Ege University, Turkey. (in Turkish with English abstract)
  • Boyacıoğlu, M. (2004). Determination of direct mutagens in sediment samples of İzmir Bay. Ege University Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21(1-2), 23-27.
  • Boyacıoğlu, M., Parlak, H., Oral, R., & Cakal, A.O. (2008). Mutagenicity of sediment and water samples from Nif Brook (Western Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin,17(1), 9 15. ttps://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2012.83-87
  • Boyacıoğlu, M., Parlak, H., Arslan, O.C. Katalay, S., & Karaslan, M.A. (2011). Study of mutagenicity of metabolized pollutants in some tissues of black gobby (Gobius niger) and black mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from İzmir Bay (Western Turkey). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances,10 (16),2135 2139. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2011.2135.2139
  • Chen, G., & White, P.A. (2004). The mutagenic hazards of aquatic sediments: A review. Mutation Research, 567(2-3), 151-225. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.mrrev.2004.08.005
  • Çakmak, D., & Demi̇r, N. (2018). Investigation of mutagenic potential of water and sediment from Karamenderes River (Çanakkale, Turkey) using the Ames Test. Journal of Scientific Perspectives, 2(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.26900/jsp.2018.06
  • Donnelly, K.C., Brown, K.W., & Kampbell, D. (1987). Chemical and biological characterization of hazardous industrial waste.1. Prokaryotic bioassays and chemical analysis of a wood-preserving bottom-sediment waste. Mutation Research, 180, 31- 42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0027 5107(87)90064-9
  • Douglas, G.R., Nestmann, E.R., Betts, J.L., Mueller, J.C., Lee, E.G.H., Stich, H.F., San, R. H.C., Brouzes, R.P., Chemelanskas, A.L., Paavilla, H.D., & Waiden, C.C. (1980). Mutagenic activity in pulp mill effluents. In. R.L. Jolley, W.A. Brungs, R.B. Cumming (Eds.), Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects (pp. 865-880) Colorado Springs, USA, Proceedings Book. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-3611-2_30 Dugan, A.M., Zhurkov, V.S., & Abilev, S.K., (1990). Criteria of allowance for the mutagenic effectors in the Ames test. Tsitologia Genetica, 24(6), 41-45. (In Russian)
  • Grifoll, M., Solanas, A.M., & Bayona, J.M., (1990). Characterization of genotoxic components in sediments by mass spectrometric techniques combined with Salmonella/microsome test. Archives Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 19(2), 175 184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01056084
  • Haynes, D., & Johnson, J.E. (2000). Organochlorine, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollutant concentrations in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) environment: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41(7–12), 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X (00)00134-X
  • Hollert, H., Dürr, M., Erdinger, L., & Braunbeck, T. (1999). Cytotoxicity of settling particulate matter and sediments of the Necked River (Germany) during a winter flood. Environmental Chemical, 19, 528-534. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620190302
  • İZSU (2012). Monitoring the Physical, Chemical, Biological and Microbiological Effects and Results of the Grand Canal Project in the Izmir Bay Marine Environment (in Turkish). Final Report, Institute of Marine Science and Technology of Dokuz Eylul University, 167 p. https://www.izsu.gov.tr/tr/Dokumanlar/Liste/11
  • İZSU (2016). Evaluation of the Physical, Chemical and Biological Effects and Results of the Circulation and Navigation Channels to be Opened Within the Scope of the İzmir Bay and Port Rehabilitation Project in the İzmir Bay Marine Environment (in Turkish). Final Report, Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, 293 p. https://www.izsu.gov.tr/tr/Dokumanlar/Liste/11
  • Kamra, O.P., Nestmann, E., Douglas, G., Kowbel, D., & Harrington, T. (1983). Genotoxic activity of pulp mill effluent in Salmonella and Saccharomyces cerevisiae assays. Mutation Research, 118, 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1218(83)90210-0
  • Katalay, S., Ayhan, M.M., Guler, C., Aldag, C., Kilic, T., & Yavasoglu, N.U.K. (2022). Cellular biomarkers in Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (Mediterranean mussels) from İzmir Bay (Turkey). Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 109(5),799-807. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-022-03597 1
  • Kaymakci, A., Sunlu, U., & Egemen, O. (2001). Assessment of nutrient pollution caused by land-based activities in İzmir Bay, Türkiye. In D. Camarda, L. Grassini (Eds.). Meeting on Interdependency between Agriculture, Urbanization: Conflicts on Sustainable Use of Soil, Water (Options Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 44) (pp. 47-53). 2000/04/02-06, Tunisia.
  • Kotelevtsev, S.V., & Stepanova, L.I. (1995). Biochemical and genotoxicological monitoring of ecosystems with special reference to Lake Baikal and Northern Black Sea. In E. Arınç, J.B. Schenkman, Hodgson, E., (Eds.), Molecular Aspects of Oxidative Drug Metabolizing Enzymes, (pp:567-589). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-79528-2_28
  • Kutlu, M., Mutlu, M.B., Aydoğan, G., & Güven, K. (2008). Salmonella mutagenicity analysis of water samples from Çamaltı Saltern. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 145, 237-241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0032-5
  • Kücüksezgin, F., Kontas A., Altay, O., Uluturhan, E., & Darılmaz, E. (2006). Assessment of marine pollution in İzmir Bay: Nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon. Environmental International, 32(1), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.04.007
  • Livingstone, D.R. (1993). Biotechnology and pollution monitoring: use of molecular biomarkers in the aquatic environment. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 57(3), 195 211. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.280570302
  • Maccubin, A.E., Noreen, E., & Mary, E.F. (1991). Mutagenicity of sediments from the Detroit River. Journal Great Lakes Research, 17(3), 314-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0380-1330(91)71368-3
  • Maron, D., & Ames, B.N., (1983). Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Research, 113, 173 215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1161(83)90010-9
  • Metcalfe, C.D., Sonstegard, R.A. & Quilliam, M.A. (1985). Genotoxic activity of particulate material in petroleum refinery effluents. Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 35, 240 248. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01636505
  • Oral, R., Kostopoulou, M., Guida, M., Nikolaou, A., Quiniou, F., Trifuoggi, M., Borriello I., Vagi, M., D’Ambra, A., & Pagano, G. (2012). Marin sediment contamination and toxicity in İzmir Bay and Mytilene Harbor (Aegean Sea). Ege University Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12, 751-760. https://doi.org/10.4164/1303-2712-v12_3_05
  • OSPAR (2002). Survey on genotoxicity test methods for the evaluation of waste water within whole effluent assessment. Hazardous Substances Series, 42p.
  • Papoulias, D.M., Buckle, D.R. (1996). Mutagenicity of Great Lakes sediments. Journal of Great Research, 22(3), 591 601. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0380-1330(96)70983-8
  • Pinto, E., Sigaud‐Kutner, T.C., Leitao, M.A., Okamoto, O.K., Morse, D., & Colepicolo, P. (2003). Heavy metal–induced oxidative stress in algae. Journal of Phycology, 39(6), 1008-1018. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.2003.02-193.x
  • Prival, M.J., King, V.D., & Sheldon, Jr. A.T. (1979). The mutagenicity of dialkyl nitrosamines in the Salmonella plate assay. Environmental Mutagenesis, 1(2), 95-104.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Environmental Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yiğit EGÜZ 0000-0002-2237-8202

Meltem BOYACIOĞLU 0000-0002-9871-6132

Project Number FGA-2019-20553
Early Pub Date September 15, 2023
Publication Date September 15, 2023
Submission Date March 15, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 40 Issue: 3

Cite

APA EGÜZ, Y., & BOYACIOĞLU, M. (2023). A mutagenicity investigation of sediment from İzmir Inner Bay using Ames genotoxicity assay. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40(3), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.3.08