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The remarkable observation for a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) food from estuarine/coastal area (İzmir/Turkey): A mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

Year 2022, Volume 39, Issue 3, 191 - 196, 15.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.39.3.03

Abstract



The purpose of this study is to create awareness about the species of mosquito fishes (Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859) both vectors and ways of introduction to new aquatic habitats. Because the species creates risks, especially for the circumstance of the native and endemic fish fauna, studies about introduction stories of the species are quite important to prevent the risk. In the current report, mosquitofishes which are known as a highly invasive species were found in the crop content of a hen mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758) in an estuarine area, the Gediz River Basin (İzmir, Turkey). This report is the first record of a duck consuming mosquitofish. Although nevertheless, it is known that mallard duck feeding behaviour does not predominantly contain fish (they mainly feed on plant seeds), according to this observation, mosquitofish might be added to the prey list of mallards as a new type of food. Therewith, this feeding behavior also indicates that ducks might be a potential vector for the transport of invasive mosquitofishes.


References

  • Arthington, A.H., & Marshal, C.J. (1999). Diet of the exotic Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in an Australian lake and potential for competition with indigenous fish species. Asian Fisheries Science, 12(1), 1-8.
  • Berg, L.S. (1965). Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Volume 3, 4th Edition, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. 510 p. Braithwaite, L.W., & Miller, B. (1975). The mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and mallard-black duck, Anas superciliosa rogersi, hybridization. Australian Wildlife Research 2, 47-61. DOI:10.1071/WR9750047
  • Brochet, A.L., Guillemain, M., Fritz, H., Gauthier-Clerc, M., & Green, A.J. (2010). Plant dispersal by teal (Anas crecca) in the Camargue: duck guts are more important than their feet. Freshwater Biology, 55, 1262-1273. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02350.x
  • Buttermore, K.F., Litkenhaus P.N., Torpey D.C., Smith G.R., & Retting, J.E. (2011). Effects of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpole activity. Acta Herpetologica, 6(1), 81-85.
  • Chura, N.J. (1962). Food Availability and Selective Utilization by Juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L.) on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 326 pp. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/326
  • Courtenay, W.R., & Meffe, G.K. (1989). Small fishes in strange places: A review of introduced poeciliids. In: G.K. Meffe, F.F. Snelson, (Eds). Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes (Poeciliidae) (pp 319-331).USA: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ.
  • Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. (1992). Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol 1: Ostrich to ducks. Barcelona:Lynx Edicions.
  • Doadrio, I. (2002). Atlas y libro rojo de los peces continentales de España. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid.
  • Figuerola, J., & Green, A.J. (2002). Dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterbirds: a review of past research and priorities for future studies. FreshwaterBiology,47,483-494. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00829.x
  • Giannetto, D., & Innal, D. (2021). Status of Endemic Freshwater Fish Fauna Inhabiting Major Lakes of Turkey under the Threats of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Disturbances: A Review. Water, 13, 1534. DOI:10.3390/w13111534
  • Google Earth V 9.121.0.5. (November 3, 2020). İzmir, Turkey. 38° 38′ 35.93″ N, 26° 38′ 02.03″ E, Eye alt 69.43 km. Borders and labels, places and terrain. Digital Globe 2012. http://www.earth.google.com [December 5, 2021].
  • Green, A.J., & Figuerola, J. (2005). Recent advances in the study of long-distance dispersal of aquatic invertebrates via birds. Diversity and Distributions, 11(2), 149-156. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2005.00147.x
  • Green, A.J., Jenkins, K.M., Bell, D., Morris, P.J., & Kingsford, R.T. (2008). The potential role of waterbirds in dispersing invertebrates and plants in arid Australia. Freshwater Biology, 53(2), 380-392. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01901.x
  • Hocaoğlu, Ö.L. (1992). Game Birds. Ankara: Ministry of Forestry, Publication Department. [in Turkish].
  • ISSG. (2013). Global Invasive Species Database (Invasive Species Specialist Group) [Access date: 22 Temmuz 2016]. Access link: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/100_worst.php
  • Kaplan, A., Hepcan, Ş., Gencer Güler, G., Küçükerbaş, E.V., Kurucu, Y., Ölgen, M.K., Türkyılmaz, B., Sıkı, M., Akgün, A., & Öner, E. (2005). Evaluation of Gediz Delta as a coastal wetlands' system with its values and cultural pressures upon it. Aegean Geographical Journal, 14, 1-16.
  • Kurtul, I., & Sarı, H.M. (2019). Contribution on the distribution of Gambusia holbrooki (Mosquitofish) in Turkey. Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research. 5(3), 170-180. DOI:10.17216/limnofish.519729
  • Lovas-Kiss, A. Vincze, O., Löki, V., Pallér-Kapusi, F., Halasi-Kovács, B., Kovács, G., Green, A.J., & András Lukács, B.A. (2020). Experimental evidence of dispersal of invasive cyprinid eggs inside migratory waterfowl. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117(27), 15397-15399. DOI:10.1073/pnas.2004805117
  • Margaritora, F.G., Ferrara, O., & Vagaggini, D. (2001). Predatory impact of the Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki Girard) on zooplanktonic populations in a pond at Tenuta di Castelporziano (Rome, Central Italy). Journal of Limnology, 60(2), 189-193. DOI:10.4081/jlimnol.2001.1.189
  • McDuie, F., Casazza, M.L., Keiter, D., Overton, C.T., Herzog, M.P., Feldheim, C.L., & Ackerman, C.T. (2019). Moving at the speed of flight: dabbling duck-movement ratesand the relationship with electronic tracking interval. Wildlife Research. 46(6): 533-543. DOI:10.1071/WR19028
  • MacIsaac, H.J. (2011). Lakes. In D. Simberloff, M. Rejmanek (Eds.) Encyclopedia of biological invasions (pp.410-419). London, University of California Press. DOI:10.1525/9780520948433-092
  • Mooney, H.A., & Cleland, E.E. (2001). The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 5446-5451. DOI:10.1073/pnas.091093398
  • Olney, P.J.S. (1964). The food of mallard Anas platyrhyncos platyrhynchos collected from coastal and estuarine areas. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 142, 397-418. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1964.tb04506.x
  • Pianka, E.R. (1981). Resource acquisition and allocation among animals. In C.R. Townsend, P. Calow (Eds.) Physiological Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use. (pp 300-314). Oxford UK, Blackwell Scientific Publishers.
  • Pyke, G.H. (2005). A review of the biology of Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 15, 339-365. DOI:10.1007/s11160-006-6394-x
  • Pyke, G.H. (2008). Plague minnow or Mosquitofish? A review of the biology and impacts of introduced Gambusia species. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 39, 171-191. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173451
  • Reynolds, C., Miranda, N.A.F., & Cumming, G.S. (2015). The role of waterbirds in the dispersal of aquatic alien and invasive species, Biodiversity Review. Diversity and Distributions, 21, 744-754. DOI:10.1111/ddi.12334
  • Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P., Hines, A.H., & Grosholz, E.D. (1999). Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: assessing invasion impacts and interactions. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 950-972. DOI:10.4319/lo.1999.44.3_part_2.0950
  • Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., & Wall, D.H. (2000). Global biodiversity sce-narios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 1770-1774. DOI:10.1126/science.287.5459.1770
  • Salman, A. (2017). First observation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a prey for mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in Gediz Delta Ramsar Area (İzmir Turkey). Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 3(3), 187-188. DOI:10.17216/limnofish.324047
  • Sánchez, M.I., Hortas, F., Figuerola, J., & Green, J.A. (2012). Comparing the potential for dispersal via waterbirds of a native and an invasive brine shrimp. Freshwater Biology, 57, 1896-1903. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2012.02852.x
  • Snow, D.W., & Perrins, C.M. (1998). The birds of the Western Palaearctic. Concise edition. Vol. 1 and 2. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Strayer, D.L. (2010). Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with stressors, and prospect for the future. Freshwater Biology, 55, 152-174. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02380.x
  • Swanson, G.A., & Meyer, M.I. (1977). Impact of fluctuating water levels on feeding ecology of breeding blue-winged teal. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 41, 426- 433. DOI:10.2307/3800511
  • Swanson, G.A., Meyer, M.I., & Adomaitis, V.A. (1985). Foods consumed by breeding mallards on wetlands of south-central North Dakota. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(1), 197-203. DOI:10.2307/3801871
  • Twigg, L.E., Lowe, T.J., Taylor, C.M., Calver, M.C., Martin, G.R., Stevenson, C., & How, R. (2009). The potential of seed-eating birds to spread viable seeds of weeds and other undesirable plants. Austral Ecology, 34, 805-820. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.01992.x
  • Van Leeuwen, C.H.A., Van der Velde, G., Van Groenendael, J.M., & Klaassen, M. (2012). Gut travellers: Internal dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterfowl. Journal of Biogeography, 39(11), 2031-2040. DOI:10.1111/jbi.12004
  • Wach, E., & Chambers, R.M. (2007). Top-down effect of fish predation in Virginia headwater streams. Northeastern Naturalist, 14, 461-470. DOI:10.1656/1092-6194(2007)14[461:TEOFPI]2.0.CO;2
  • Walters, D.M., & Freeman, B.J. (2000). Distribution of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) in a southeastern river system and the use of fin ray counts for species determination. Copeia. (2), 555-559. DOI:10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[0555:DOGPIA]2.0.CO;2
  • Willis, K., & Ling, N. (2000). Sensitivities of Mosquitofish and black mudfish to a piscicide: could rotenone be used to control Mosquitofish in New Zealand waters? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27, 85-91. DOI:10.1080/03014223.2000.9518214
  • Yoğurtçuoğlu, B., & Ekmekçi, F.G. (2014). First Attempt at Conservation of a Critically Endangered Cyprinodontid in Turkey. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences, 8(24), 159-163.
  • Zięba, G., Copp G.H., Davies G.D., Stebbing P., Wesley K.J., & Robert Britton J.R. (2010). Recent releases and dispersal of non-native fishes in England and Wales, with emphasis on sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel, 1843). Aquatic Invasions, 5(2), 155-161. DOI:10.3391/ai.2010.5.2.04
  • Zogaris, S. (2014). Ichthyological study for Oroklini Lake. Bird Life Cyprus. A study within the Project LIFE10 NAT/CY/716 "Restoration and Management of Oroklini Lake SPA, Larnaca". Unpublished Final Report. Nicosia, Cyprus, 58 p.

Year 2022, Volume 39, Issue 3, 191 - 196, 15.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.39.3.03

Abstract

References

  • Arthington, A.H., & Marshal, C.J. (1999). Diet of the exotic Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in an Australian lake and potential for competition with indigenous fish species. Asian Fisheries Science, 12(1), 1-8.
  • Berg, L.S. (1965). Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Volume 3, 4th Edition, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. 510 p. Braithwaite, L.W., & Miller, B. (1975). The mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and mallard-black duck, Anas superciliosa rogersi, hybridization. Australian Wildlife Research 2, 47-61. DOI:10.1071/WR9750047
  • Brochet, A.L., Guillemain, M., Fritz, H., Gauthier-Clerc, M., & Green, A.J. (2010). Plant dispersal by teal (Anas crecca) in the Camargue: duck guts are more important than their feet. Freshwater Biology, 55, 1262-1273. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02350.x
  • Buttermore, K.F., Litkenhaus P.N., Torpey D.C., Smith G.R., & Retting, J.E. (2011). Effects of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpole activity. Acta Herpetologica, 6(1), 81-85.
  • Chura, N.J. (1962). Food Availability and Selective Utilization by Juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L.) on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. 326 pp. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/326
  • Courtenay, W.R., & Meffe, G.K. (1989). Small fishes in strange places: A review of introduced poeciliids. In: G.K. Meffe, F.F. Snelson, (Eds). Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes (Poeciliidae) (pp 319-331).USA: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ.
  • Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. (1992). Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol 1: Ostrich to ducks. Barcelona:Lynx Edicions.
  • Doadrio, I. (2002). Atlas y libro rojo de los peces continentales de España. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid.
  • Figuerola, J., & Green, A.J. (2002). Dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterbirds: a review of past research and priorities for future studies. FreshwaterBiology,47,483-494. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00829.x
  • Giannetto, D., & Innal, D. (2021). Status of Endemic Freshwater Fish Fauna Inhabiting Major Lakes of Turkey under the Threats of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Disturbances: A Review. Water, 13, 1534. DOI:10.3390/w13111534
  • Google Earth V 9.121.0.5. (November 3, 2020). İzmir, Turkey. 38° 38′ 35.93″ N, 26° 38′ 02.03″ E, Eye alt 69.43 km. Borders and labels, places and terrain. Digital Globe 2012. http://www.earth.google.com [December 5, 2021].
  • Green, A.J., & Figuerola, J. (2005). Recent advances in the study of long-distance dispersal of aquatic invertebrates via birds. Diversity and Distributions, 11(2), 149-156. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2005.00147.x
  • Green, A.J., Jenkins, K.M., Bell, D., Morris, P.J., & Kingsford, R.T. (2008). The potential role of waterbirds in dispersing invertebrates and plants in arid Australia. Freshwater Biology, 53(2), 380-392. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01901.x
  • Hocaoğlu, Ö.L. (1992). Game Birds. Ankara: Ministry of Forestry, Publication Department. [in Turkish].
  • ISSG. (2013). Global Invasive Species Database (Invasive Species Specialist Group) [Access date: 22 Temmuz 2016]. Access link: http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/100_worst.php
  • Kaplan, A., Hepcan, Ş., Gencer Güler, G., Küçükerbaş, E.V., Kurucu, Y., Ölgen, M.K., Türkyılmaz, B., Sıkı, M., Akgün, A., & Öner, E. (2005). Evaluation of Gediz Delta as a coastal wetlands' system with its values and cultural pressures upon it. Aegean Geographical Journal, 14, 1-16.
  • Kurtul, I., & Sarı, H.M. (2019). Contribution on the distribution of Gambusia holbrooki (Mosquitofish) in Turkey. Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research. 5(3), 170-180. DOI:10.17216/limnofish.519729
  • Lovas-Kiss, A. Vincze, O., Löki, V., Pallér-Kapusi, F., Halasi-Kovács, B., Kovács, G., Green, A.J., & András Lukács, B.A. (2020). Experimental evidence of dispersal of invasive cyprinid eggs inside migratory waterfowl. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117(27), 15397-15399. DOI:10.1073/pnas.2004805117
  • Margaritora, F.G., Ferrara, O., & Vagaggini, D. (2001). Predatory impact of the Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki Girard) on zooplanktonic populations in a pond at Tenuta di Castelporziano (Rome, Central Italy). Journal of Limnology, 60(2), 189-193. DOI:10.4081/jlimnol.2001.1.189
  • McDuie, F., Casazza, M.L., Keiter, D., Overton, C.T., Herzog, M.P., Feldheim, C.L., & Ackerman, C.T. (2019). Moving at the speed of flight: dabbling duck-movement ratesand the relationship with electronic tracking interval. Wildlife Research. 46(6): 533-543. DOI:10.1071/WR19028
  • MacIsaac, H.J. (2011). Lakes. In D. Simberloff, M. Rejmanek (Eds.) Encyclopedia of biological invasions (pp.410-419). London, University of California Press. DOI:10.1525/9780520948433-092
  • Mooney, H.A., & Cleland, E.E. (2001). The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 5446-5451. DOI:10.1073/pnas.091093398
  • Olney, P.J.S. (1964). The food of mallard Anas platyrhyncos platyrhynchos collected from coastal and estuarine areas. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 142, 397-418. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1964.tb04506.x
  • Pianka, E.R. (1981). Resource acquisition and allocation among animals. In C.R. Townsend, P. Calow (Eds.) Physiological Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use. (pp 300-314). Oxford UK, Blackwell Scientific Publishers.
  • Pyke, G.H. (2005). A review of the biology of Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 15, 339-365. DOI:10.1007/s11160-006-6394-x
  • Pyke, G.H. (2008). Plague minnow or Mosquitofish? A review of the biology and impacts of introduced Gambusia species. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 39, 171-191. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173451
  • Reynolds, C., Miranda, N.A.F., & Cumming, G.S. (2015). The role of waterbirds in the dispersal of aquatic alien and invasive species, Biodiversity Review. Diversity and Distributions, 21, 744-754. DOI:10.1111/ddi.12334
  • Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P., Hines, A.H., & Grosholz, E.D. (1999). Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: assessing invasion impacts and interactions. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 950-972. DOI:10.4319/lo.1999.44.3_part_2.0950
  • Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., & Wall, D.H. (2000). Global biodiversity sce-narios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 1770-1774. DOI:10.1126/science.287.5459.1770
  • Salman, A. (2017). First observation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a prey for mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in Gediz Delta Ramsar Area (İzmir Turkey). Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 3(3), 187-188. DOI:10.17216/limnofish.324047
  • Sánchez, M.I., Hortas, F., Figuerola, J., & Green, J.A. (2012). Comparing the potential for dispersal via waterbirds of a native and an invasive brine shrimp. Freshwater Biology, 57, 1896-1903. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2012.02852.x
  • Snow, D.W., & Perrins, C.M. (1998). The birds of the Western Palaearctic. Concise edition. Vol. 1 and 2. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Strayer, D.L. (2010). Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with stressors, and prospect for the future. Freshwater Biology, 55, 152-174. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02380.x
  • Swanson, G.A., & Meyer, M.I. (1977). Impact of fluctuating water levels on feeding ecology of breeding blue-winged teal. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 41, 426- 433. DOI:10.2307/3800511
  • Swanson, G.A., Meyer, M.I., & Adomaitis, V.A. (1985). Foods consumed by breeding mallards on wetlands of south-central North Dakota. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(1), 197-203. DOI:10.2307/3801871
  • Twigg, L.E., Lowe, T.J., Taylor, C.M., Calver, M.C., Martin, G.R., Stevenson, C., & How, R. (2009). The potential of seed-eating birds to spread viable seeds of weeds and other undesirable plants. Austral Ecology, 34, 805-820. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.01992.x
  • Van Leeuwen, C.H.A., Van der Velde, G., Van Groenendael, J.M., & Klaassen, M. (2012). Gut travellers: Internal dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterfowl. Journal of Biogeography, 39(11), 2031-2040. DOI:10.1111/jbi.12004
  • Wach, E., & Chambers, R.M. (2007). Top-down effect of fish predation in Virginia headwater streams. Northeastern Naturalist, 14, 461-470. DOI:10.1656/1092-6194(2007)14[461:TEOFPI]2.0.CO;2
  • Walters, D.M., & Freeman, B.J. (2000). Distribution of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) in a southeastern river system and the use of fin ray counts for species determination. Copeia. (2), 555-559. DOI:10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[0555:DOGPIA]2.0.CO;2
  • Willis, K., & Ling, N. (2000). Sensitivities of Mosquitofish and black mudfish to a piscicide: could rotenone be used to control Mosquitofish in New Zealand waters? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27, 85-91. DOI:10.1080/03014223.2000.9518214
  • Yoğurtçuoğlu, B., & Ekmekçi, F.G. (2014). First Attempt at Conservation of a Critically Endangered Cyprinodontid in Turkey. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences, 8(24), 159-163.
  • Zięba, G., Copp G.H., Davies G.D., Stebbing P., Wesley K.J., & Robert Britton J.R. (2010). Recent releases and dispersal of non-native fishes in England and Wales, with emphasis on sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel, 1843). Aquatic Invasions, 5(2), 155-161. DOI:10.3391/ai.2010.5.2.04
  • Zogaris, S. (2014). Ichthyological study for Oroklini Lake. Bird Life Cyprus. A study within the Project LIFE10 NAT/CY/716 "Restoration and Management of Oroklini Lake SPA, Larnaca". Unpublished Final Report. Nicosia, Cyprus, 58 p.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine and Freshwater Biology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

M. Alp SALMAN> (Primary Author)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-2853-6507
Türkiye


Irmak KURTUL>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-3566-9172
Türkiye


Hasan SARI>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1000-514X
Türkiye

Supporting Institution yok
Project Number yok
Thanks We would like to thank the Gediz Delta local fishermen who are sensitive to academic studies. Ethical permission is not required for the present study.
Publication Date September 15, 2022
Submission Date February 17, 2022
Acceptance Date June 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 39, Issue 3

Cite

APA Salman, M. A. , Kurtul, I. & Sarı, H. (2022). The remarkable observation for a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) food from estuarine/coastal area (İzmir/Turkey): A mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 39 (3) , 191-196 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.39.3.03