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Effects of synthetic and natural steroids on the growth, sex reversal and gonadal development of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3, 123 - 131, 01.09.2013

Abstract

Indirect methods such as masculinizing treatments by synthetic sex steroids has widely been used to produce all-female stocks in salmonids, but they have some disadvantage such as toxicity and high cost. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to develop indirect methods for the production of allfemale populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss through the use of natural steroids.In this study seven thousand prelarval rainbow trout were divided evenly among seven tanks and fed a commercial starter trout diet supplemented with synthetic (3, 6 mg testosterone and methyltestosterone kg-1 diet) and natural steroids (50 and 100 mg Tribulus terrestris kg-1 diet) during 90 days after hatching. Fish were then further reared on a commercial trout diet until sex ratios could be
determined through histological and macroscopic observations. The Tribulus terrestris (50 and100 mg/ kg) treatments yielded 55–63% males, while th testosterone (3 and 6 mg/ kg) treatment yielded 51–53% male population. This demonstrates that Tribulus terrestris was effective in the direct masculinization of rainbow trout compared to testosterone, but no significant difference was observed between groups. Also, this study was the first attempt that yielding higher growth of Oncorhynchus mykiss fed with diets containing TT (100 mg kg-1 diet) compared to other experimental groups. There were no marked differences in the structure of the undifferentiated gonads between the control group and all treatment groups. In conclusion, the effects of higher concentrations (150, 200, 250 mg kg-1) of TT should be investigated to reach the higher sex reversal and growth rates, and also determined the blood testosterone levels, gonadal structure of rainbow trout and/or other salmonids, and cultivable fish species.

References

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  • Adimoelja, A., Adaikan, P.G., 1997. Protodioscin from herbal plant Tribulus terrestris L. improves male sexual functions possibly via DHEA. International Journal of Impotence Research,9(1): 64.
  • Adimoelja, A., 2000. Photochemical and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.International Journal of Andrology, 23(2):82–84. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2605.2000.00020.x
  • Adimoelja, A., Sartono, S., Soedjono, J., 2005. Phyto-DHEA treatment, an alternative option for aging men. International Journal of Andrology, 28 (1): 25
  • Aslani, M.R., Movassaghi, A.R., Mohri, M., Ebrahim-pour, V., Mohebi, A.N., 2004. Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats.Small Ruminant Resources, 51: 261–267. doi: 10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00195-0
  • Boney, S.E., Shelton, W.L., Yang, S., Wilken, L.O., 1984. Sex reversal and breeding of grass carp. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 113:348–353.doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1984)113<348:SRABOG>2.0.CO;2
  • Bromage,N.R., Cumaranatunga, P.R.T., 1988. Oocyte development in the rainbow trout with special reference to vitellogenesis and atresia. In: 3rd International Symposium Reproductive Physiology of Fish 1988, Newfoundland, Proceedings Book, D.R. Idler, L.W. Crim, J.M. Walsh (Eds.), pp. 194.
  • Bromage, N., J. Jones, C. Randall, M. Thrush, B. Davies, J. Springate, J. Duston, Barker, G., 1992. Broodstock management, fecundity, egg quality and the timing of egg production in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 100 (1-3): 141-166. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(92)90355-O
  • Bucci, L.R., 2000. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (2): 36-624.
  • Contreras-Sanchez, W.M., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Schreck, C.B., 2001. Fate of methyl testosterone in the pond environment: detection of Mt in pond soil from a CRSP site. In:18th Annual Tech Report 2001, Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, A. Gupta, K. McElwee, D. Burke, J. Burright, X. Cummings, X. H. Egn (Eds.), pp. 79–82.
  • Çek, Ş., Bromage, N., Randal, C., Rana, K., 2001. Oogenesis, Hepatosomatic and Gonadosomatic Indexes, and Sex Ratio in Rosy barb (Puntiusconchonius). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1(1):33-41.
  • Çek, Ş., Turan, F., Atik, E., 2007a. Masculinization of convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) by immersion in Tribulus terrestris extract. Aquaculture International, 15(2):109-119. doi: 10.1007/s10499-006-9071-0
  • Çek, Ş., Turan, F., Atik, E., 2007b. The effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on sex reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulate. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(5): 718-725. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.718.725
  • Çek, Ş.,Yılmaz, E., 2009. The effect of varying dietary energy on gonad development at first sexual maturity of the Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Aquaculture International, 17 (6): 553-563. doi: 10.1007/s10499-008-9224-4
  • Degani, G., Dosoretz, C., 1986. The effect of 3,3%,5-triiodo-Lthryonine and 17α-methyltestosterone on growth and body composition of the glass stage of the eel (Anguilla Anguilla L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 1: 145–151. doi: 10.1007/BF02290255
  • Delahunty, G., De Vlaming, V.L., 1980. Seasonal relationship of ovary weight, liver weight and fat stores with body weight in the goldfish, Carassiusauaratus (L.). Journal of Fish Biology, 16: 5-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1980.tb03683.x
  • Devlaming, V., Grossman, G., Chapman, F., 1982. On the use of gonadosomatic index.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 73A: 31-39. doi: 10.1016/0300-9629(82)90088-3
  • Devlin, R. H., Nagahama, Y., 2002. Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: an overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture, 208 (3-4): 191-364. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00057-1
  • Donaldson, E.M., Fagerlund, U.H.M., Higgs, D.A., McBride, J.R., 1979. Hormonal enhancement of growth. In: Fish Physiology, W.S Hoar, D.J. Randall, J.R, Brett (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, 455– 597 p.
  • Fagerlund, U.H.M., Dye, H.M., 1979. Depletion of radioactivity from yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch) after extended ingestion of anabolically effective dose of 17a-methyltestosterone-1,2-3H. Aquaculture, 18: 303–15. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(79)90034-6
  • Ganzera, M., Bedir, E., Khan, I.A., 2001. Determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 90(11): 1752-1758. doi: 10.1002/jps.1124
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P. G., Prasad, R. N. V., Goh, V. H. H., Ng, S.C., 2000. Changes in hormonal parameters secondary to intravenous administration of Tribulus terrestris extract in primates. International Journal of Impotence Research,12(2): 6
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P.G., Prasad, R.N.V., 2002. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats. Life Science, 71(12): 1385–1396. doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01858-1
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P.G., 2005. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96(1- 2):127-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.030
  • Grau, E.G., 1993. Effect of 17a-methyltestosterone on the growth of the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromismossambicus, in fresh water and in sea water. Aquaculture, 113:137–52. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90347-2
  • Grumbach, M.M., Ducharme, J.R., 1960. The effects of androgens on fetal sexual development: androgen-induced female pseudohermaphroditism. Fertility and Sterility, 11: 157–180.
  • Hartleb, M., Nowak, A., 1990. Severe jaundice with destructive cholangitis after administration of methyltestosterone. American Journal of Gasteroenterology, 85: 766–767.
  • Higgs, D.A., Fagerlund, U.H.M., McBride, J.R., Dye, H.M., Donaldson, E.M., 1977. Influence of combinations of bovine growth hormone, 17a- methyltestosterone and L-thyroxine on growth of yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55: 1048–1056. doi: 10.1139/z77-133
  • Higgs, D.A., Fagerlund, U.H.M., Eales, J.G., McBride, J.R., 1982. Application of thyroid and steroid hormones as anabolic agents in fish culture. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 73B: 143–76.
  • Jayaprakas, V., Sindhu, B.S., 1996. Effect of hormones on growth and food utilization of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinusmrigala.Fisheries Technology,33: 21–27.
  • Kavitha, A.V., Jagadessan, G., 2002. In vivo studies on the role of Tribulus terrestris extract on mercury intoxicated mice, Mus musculus (Linn.) large intestine–a histological survey. Indian Journal of Experimental Zoology, 6(2), 213–219.
  • Kavitha, A.V., Jagadessan, G., 2003. Histopathological alterations in small intestine of mercury intoxicated mice, Mus musculus (Linn.) in response to Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) extract. Pollen Research, 23(3):343–347.
  • Kuwaye, T.T., Okimoto, D.K., Shimoda, S.K., Howerton, R.D., Lin, H.R., Pang, P.K.T., Lone, K.P., Matty, A.J., 1980. The effect of feeding methyltestosterone on the growth and body composition of common carp (CyprinuscarpioL.). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 40: 409. doi: 10.1016/0016-6480(80)90004-0
  • Lucey, M.R., 1987. Severe cholestasis associated with methyltestosterone: a case report. American Journal of Gasteroenterology, 82: 461–462.
  • Manzoor Ali, P.K.M., SatyanarayanaRao, G.P., 1989. Growth improvements in carp, Cyprinuscarpio (Linnaeus), sterilized with 17α- methyltestosterone. Aquaculture, 76: 157–167 doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90260-3
  • Mukhopadhyay, P.K., Venkatesh, B., Das, P., 1986. Growth and some biochemical changes in Clarias batrachus due to methyl testosterone. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 33: 262–269.
  • Nagy, A., Bercsenyi, M., Csanyi, V. 1981. Sex reversal in carp (Cyprinuscarpio) by oral administration of methyltestosterone. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 38:725– 8. doi: 10.1139/f81-096
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Doğal ve sentetik steroidlerin Gökkuşağı alabalığında, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) gonadal gelişim, cinsiyet dönüşümü ve büyüme üzerine etkileri

Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3, 123 - 131, 01.09.2013

Abstract

Tamamı dişi salmonid stokların üretiminde sentetik cinsiyet hormonlarının kullanımına dayanan erkekleştirme uygulamaları gibi dolaylı yöntemler yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Ancak söz konusu sentetik hormonların toksik etkiler ve yüksek maliyetler gibi dezavantajları bulunmaktadır. Bu bakımdan mevcut araştırmada, doğal steroidlerin kullanımı yolu ile tamamı dişi alabalık populasyonlarının üretimi için dolaylı yöntemlerin geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada 7000 prelarval gökkuşağı alabalığı yedi tanka eşit olarak bölünmüş ve bunlar sentetik hormonlar (3 ve 6 mg metiltestosteron -MT ve testosteron -T kg-1yem) ve doğal hormonlar (50 ve 100 mg Tribulus terrestris -TT kg-1) içeren ticari alabalık yavru yemleri (Skretting, France) ile keseli dönemden sonraki 90 gün boyunca beslenmiştir. 90 günlük ilk besleme periyodunun sonunda balıklar cinsiyetlerin makroskopik ve histolojik yöntemlerle belirlenebildiği döneme kadar hormon içermeyen ticari alabalık yemi ile beslenmiştir. Araştırma sonunda 50 ve100 mg/ kg Tribulus terrestris (TT) içeren yemle beslenen balıkların sıra ile %55 ve 63’ü erkek iken, 3 ve 6 mg/ kg testosteron (T) içeren yemle beslenen balıkların sıra ile %51 ve 53 oranında erkek olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu durum Tribulus terrestris’in testosterona göre alabalıkların doğrudan erkekleştirilmesinde daha etkin olduğunu fakat gruplar arasında fark bulunmamıştır. Ayrıca bu araştırma, Tribulus terrestris içeren (100 mg/kg mg/ kg yemde) yemlerle beslenen alabalıkların diğer deneme gruplarındaki balıklara kıyasla daha yüksek canlı ağırlığa ulaştığını bildiren ilk çalışmadır. Kontrol ve deneme grupları arasında farklılaşmamış gonad yapıları bakımından önemli bir farklılık gözlenmemiştir. Sonuç olarak araştırmada, daha yüksek cinsiyet dönüşüm ve büyüme oranlarına ulaşmak için Tribulus terrestris’in daha yüksek konsantrasyonlarının (150, 200, 250 mg kg-1) etkilerini araştırılmalıdır. Ayrıca bu konsantrasyonların gökkuşağı alabalığında, diğer salmonid ve ticari türlerde kan testosteron seviyelerinin yanısıra gonad yapısına olan etkileri de belirlenmelidir

References

  • Adaikan,P.G., Gauthaman, K., Ng, R.N.V., Prasad, S.C., 2000. Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris on the rabbit corpus cavernosum.Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 29(1): 22–26.
  • Adimoelja, A., Adaikan, P.G., 1997. Protodioscin from herbal plant Tribulus terrestris L. improves male sexual functions possibly via DHEA. International Journal of Impotence Research,9(1): 64.
  • Adimoelja, A., 2000. Photochemical and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.International Journal of Andrology, 23(2):82–84. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2605.2000.00020.x
  • Adimoelja, A., Sartono, S., Soedjono, J., 2005. Phyto-DHEA treatment, an alternative option for aging men. International Journal of Andrology, 28 (1): 25
  • Aslani, M.R., Movassaghi, A.R., Mohri, M., Ebrahim-pour, V., Mohebi, A.N., 2004. Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats.Small Ruminant Resources, 51: 261–267. doi: 10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00195-0
  • Boney, S.E., Shelton, W.L., Yang, S., Wilken, L.O., 1984. Sex reversal and breeding of grass carp. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 113:348–353.doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1984)113<348:SRABOG>2.0.CO;2
  • Bromage,N.R., Cumaranatunga, P.R.T., 1988. Oocyte development in the rainbow trout with special reference to vitellogenesis and atresia. In: 3rd International Symposium Reproductive Physiology of Fish 1988, Newfoundland, Proceedings Book, D.R. Idler, L.W. Crim, J.M. Walsh (Eds.), pp. 194.
  • Bromage, N., J. Jones, C. Randall, M. Thrush, B. Davies, J. Springate, J. Duston, Barker, G., 1992. Broodstock management, fecundity, egg quality and the timing of egg production in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 100 (1-3): 141-166. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(92)90355-O
  • Bucci, L.R., 2000. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (2): 36-624.
  • Contreras-Sanchez, W.M., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Schreck, C.B., 2001. Fate of methyl testosterone in the pond environment: detection of Mt in pond soil from a CRSP site. In:18th Annual Tech Report 2001, Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, A. Gupta, K. McElwee, D. Burke, J. Burright, X. Cummings, X. H. Egn (Eds.), pp. 79–82.
  • Çek, Ş., Bromage, N., Randal, C., Rana, K., 2001. Oogenesis, Hepatosomatic and Gonadosomatic Indexes, and Sex Ratio in Rosy barb (Puntiusconchonius). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1(1):33-41.
  • Çek, Ş., Turan, F., Atik, E., 2007a. Masculinization of convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) by immersion in Tribulus terrestris extract. Aquaculture International, 15(2):109-119. doi: 10.1007/s10499-006-9071-0
  • Çek, Ş., Turan, F., Atik, E., 2007b. The effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on sex reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulate. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(5): 718-725. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.718.725
  • Çek, Ş.,Yılmaz, E., 2009. The effect of varying dietary energy on gonad development at first sexual maturity of the Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Aquaculture International, 17 (6): 553-563. doi: 10.1007/s10499-008-9224-4
  • Degani, G., Dosoretz, C., 1986. The effect of 3,3%,5-triiodo-Lthryonine and 17α-methyltestosterone on growth and body composition of the glass stage of the eel (Anguilla Anguilla L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 1: 145–151. doi: 10.1007/BF02290255
  • Delahunty, G., De Vlaming, V.L., 1980. Seasonal relationship of ovary weight, liver weight and fat stores with body weight in the goldfish, Carassiusauaratus (L.). Journal of Fish Biology, 16: 5-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1980.tb03683.x
  • Devlaming, V., Grossman, G., Chapman, F., 1982. On the use of gonadosomatic index.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 73A: 31-39. doi: 10.1016/0300-9629(82)90088-3
  • Devlin, R. H., Nagahama, Y., 2002. Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: an overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture, 208 (3-4): 191-364. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00057-1
  • Donaldson, E.M., Fagerlund, U.H.M., Higgs, D.A., McBride, J.R., 1979. Hormonal enhancement of growth. In: Fish Physiology, W.S Hoar, D.J. Randall, J.R, Brett (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, 455– 597 p.
  • Fagerlund, U.H.M., Dye, H.M., 1979. Depletion of radioactivity from yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch) after extended ingestion of anabolically effective dose of 17a-methyltestosterone-1,2-3H. Aquaculture, 18: 303–15. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(79)90034-6
  • Ganzera, M., Bedir, E., Khan, I.A., 2001. Determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 90(11): 1752-1758. doi: 10.1002/jps.1124
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P. G., Prasad, R. N. V., Goh, V. H. H., Ng, S.C., 2000. Changes in hormonal parameters secondary to intravenous administration of Tribulus terrestris extract in primates. International Journal of Impotence Research,12(2): 6
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P.G., Prasad, R.N.V., 2002. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats. Life Science, 71(12): 1385–1396. doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01858-1
  • Gauthaman, K., Adaikan, P.G., 2005. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96(1- 2):127-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.030
  • Grau, E.G., 1993. Effect of 17a-methyltestosterone on the growth of the euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromismossambicus, in fresh water and in sea water. Aquaculture, 113:137–52. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90347-2
  • Grumbach, M.M., Ducharme, J.R., 1960. The effects of androgens on fetal sexual development: androgen-induced female pseudohermaphroditism. Fertility and Sterility, 11: 157–180.
  • Hartleb, M., Nowak, A., 1990. Severe jaundice with destructive cholangitis after administration of methyltestosterone. American Journal of Gasteroenterology, 85: 766–767.
  • Higgs, D.A., Fagerlund, U.H.M., McBride, J.R., Dye, H.M., Donaldson, E.M., 1977. Influence of combinations of bovine growth hormone, 17a- methyltestosterone and L-thyroxine on growth of yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchuskisutch). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55: 1048–1056. doi: 10.1139/z77-133
  • Higgs, D.A., Fagerlund, U.H.M., Eales, J.G., McBride, J.R., 1982. Application of thyroid and steroid hormones as anabolic agents in fish culture. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 73B: 143–76.
  • Jayaprakas, V., Sindhu, B.S., 1996. Effect of hormones on growth and food utilization of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinusmrigala.Fisheries Technology,33: 21–27.
  • Kavitha, A.V., Jagadessan, G., 2002. In vivo studies on the role of Tribulus terrestris extract on mercury intoxicated mice, Mus musculus (Linn.) large intestine–a histological survey. Indian Journal of Experimental Zoology, 6(2), 213–219.
  • Kavitha, A.V., Jagadessan, G., 2003. Histopathological alterations in small intestine of mercury intoxicated mice, Mus musculus (Linn.) in response to Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) extract. Pollen Research, 23(3):343–347.
  • Kuwaye, T.T., Okimoto, D.K., Shimoda, S.K., Howerton, R.D., Lin, H.R., Pang, P.K.T., Lone, K.P., Matty, A.J., 1980. The effect of feeding methyltestosterone on the growth and body composition of common carp (CyprinuscarpioL.). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 40: 409. doi: 10.1016/0016-6480(80)90004-0
  • Lucey, M.R., 1987. Severe cholestasis associated with methyltestosterone: a case report. American Journal of Gasteroenterology, 82: 461–462.
  • Manzoor Ali, P.K.M., SatyanarayanaRao, G.P., 1989. Growth improvements in carp, Cyprinuscarpio (Linnaeus), sterilized with 17α- methyltestosterone. Aquaculture, 76: 157–167 doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90260-3
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  • Nagy, A., Bercsenyi, M., Csanyi, V. 1981. Sex reversal in carp (Cyprinuscarpio) by oral administration of methyltestosterone. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 38:725– 8. doi: 10.1139/f81-096
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Erdal YILMAZ This is me


Şehriban ÇEK This is me


Yavuz MAZLUM This is me

Publication Date September 1, 2013
Application Date December 7, 2015
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2013, Volume 30, Issue 3

Cite

APA Yılmaz, E. , Çek, Ş. & Mazlum, Y. (2013). Effects of synthetic and natural steroids on the growth, sex reversal and gonadal development of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 30 (3) , 123-131 . Retrieved from http://www.egejfas.org/en/pub/issue/4988/67586