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Sürdürülebilir su ürünleri yetiştiriciliğinde yemlerin çevreye etkisinin azaltılması

Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 1, 87 - 97, 15.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2019.36.1.12

Abstract



Sürdürülebilir yetiştiricilik çevresel, sosyal, ekonomik ve estetik faktörlerin bütünleşmesi ile meydana gelmektedir. Yetiştiriciliğin çevreye olan etkisinde beslemenin etkileri yadsınamaz. Çevresel etkilerin başında sisteme verilen yem ve yemin oluşturduğu besin maddelerinin yükü gelmektedir. Bu besinlerin yükünü yem içeriğinde bulunan azot ve fosfor oluşturmaktadır. Azot ve fosforun yetiştiricilik yapılan ortamda normal değerlerin üzerinde birikmesi ötrofikasyon ve algal patlamalar gibi olaylara neden olabilmekte ve bu durum yetiştiricilik ortamındaki yaşamı olumsuz etkileyebilmektedir. Balık yemlerinden kaynaklı çevresel etkilerin azaltılması sürdürülebilir yetiştiriciliğe önemli katkı sağlamaktadır. Yemden en verimli şekilde yararlanıp   çevre dostu yem formülasyonların geliştirilmesi çevreye salınan azot ve fosfor miktarını azalarak yetiştiriciliğin yem kaynaklı çevresel etkilerini azaltmaya yardımcı olabilir. Yemin daha verimli kullanılarak sindirilebilirliğinin arttırılması ile ilgili çeşitli çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. Bu amaca hizmet etmek üzere son yıllarda yemlere enzim eklenmesinin başarılı olduğu birçok çalışmada görülmüştür. Özellikle fitaz enzimi ilavesi ile fosfor sindirilebilirliği artmakta suya salınan fosfor miktarları da düşmektedir. Bu konuda entegre multi trofik akuakültür sistemler, akuaponik sistemler gibi alternatif üretim formülleri ve izleme sistemlerinin geliştirilmesi ile bu yükün faydalı bir şekilde kullanılması ve izlenilmesi sağlanabilir. Bu derlemede sürdürülebilir yetiştiricilikte yemlerin çevresel etkileri ve bu çevresel etkilerin azaltılması için neler yapılabileceği konusu ele alınmaktadır.




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Reducing the impact of feeds on the environment in sustainable aquaculture

Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 1, 87 - 97, 15.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2019.36.1.12

Abstract



Sustainable aquaculture consists of environmental, social, economic and aesthetic factors. The most important environmental impacts are the feed given to the system, and the nutrient load arising from the feed and undeniable impact of aquculture. This nutrient load consists of nitrogen and phosphorus, which are basically found in feeds. Nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in the system can cause events such as eutrophication and algal blooms in the environment and this may be negatively affecting the life in the environment. Sustainable aquaculture can be achieved by reducing the environmental impacts arising from the feeding. The environmental impacts of the aquaculture arising from the feeding can be reduced by using the feed in the most efficient way and by reducing the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus release to the environment together with the development of environmentally friendly feed formulations. Many studies have shown that the addition of enzymes to feeds has been successful for more efficient use of the feeds and increasing digestibility. Especially thanks to the addition of phytase enzyme, the phosphorus digestibility increases and the amount of phosphorus released into the water decreases. In addition, this load arising from the feed can be advantageously used and monitored with alternative production formulas for example, with integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems and aquaponic systems. In this compilation, environmental effects of the feeds in sustainable aquaculture and what can be done to reduce these environmental effects are discussed.




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  • Barnes, M.E, Brown, M.L., Rosentrater, K.A. (2012). Juvenile rainbow trout responses to diets containing distillers dried grain withsolubles, phytase, and amino acid supplements. Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2(2), 69-77. DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22011
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

İsmail Berat ÇANTAŞ
MUĞLA SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2591-0310
Türkiye


Önder YILDIRIM (Primary Author)
MUĞLA SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2591-0310
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2019
Application Date July 10, 2018
Acceptance Date January 11, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 36, Issue 1

Cite

APA Çantaş, İ. B. & Yıldırım, Ö. (2019). Sürdürülebilir su ürünleri yetiştiriciliğinde yemlerin çevreye etkisinin azaltılması . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 36 (1) , 87-97 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2019.36.1.12