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Effects of various stocking densities on hatching and survival rates of sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa eggs (Gmelin, 1788)

Year 2018, Volume 35, Issue 4, 381 - 386, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2018.35.4.03

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to determine the opening and survival rates of Holothuria tubulosa eggs at four different stocking densities (1,5,15,30 eggs / ml) and to determine the effect of stocking density on egg size and larval size in different stages. Fertilized Holothuria tubulosa eggs were stocked in cylindrical conical collectors with a capacity of 30 l. Eggs were counted under light microscope at fertilization, early gastrulation, late gastrulation and hatching stages. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between stock intensity and opening rate (r = -0.848; p<0.001). The lowest hatching and survival rate was determined in 30 eggs / ml group (p <0.05). However, different stocking densities did not affect the diameter of the egg in different embryological stages (p> 0.05) and the length of early auricularia larva at 65 h (p> 0.05). As a result, the optimal stocking density for the highest hatching and survival rates of the fertilized eggs of Holothuria tubulosa was determined as 1-5 eggs / ml.

References

  • Agudo, N. (2006). Sandfish hatchery techniques. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the World Fish Centre. Noumea: New Caledonia.
  • Asha, P. & Diwakar, K. (2013). Effect of stocking density on the hatching rate, larval and early juvenile rearing of edible sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1883). Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Science, 42, 191-195.
  • Battaglene S. C., Seymour, J. E. Ramofafia, C & Lane, I. (2002). Spawning induction of three tropical sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra, H. fuscogilva and Actinopyga mauritiana. Aquaculture, 207(1), 29-47. DOI:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00725-6
  • Battaglene S. C. & Bell, J. D. (1999). Potential of the tropical Indo-Pacific seacucumber, Holothuria scabra, for stock enhancement. In B.R. Howell, E. Moskness, T. Svasand (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching (pp 478-490). Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Choo P. S. (2008). Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in Asia. In: V., Toral-Granda, A. Lovatelli, M. Vasconcellos, M. (Eds.), Sea cucumbers A global review of fisheries and trade (pp 81-118). Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No.516.
  • Çakli Ş., Cadun, A., Kışla, D. & Dinçer, T. (2004). Determination of quality characteristics of Holothuria tubulosa, (Gmelin, 1788) in Turkish sea (Aegean Region) depending on sun drying process step used in Turkey. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 13(3), 69-28. DOI: 10.1300/J030v13n03_07
  • Dabbagh, A. R., Sedaghat, M. R., Rameshi, H. & Kamrani, E. (2011). Breeding and larval rearing of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt (Holothuria vegabunda Selenka) from the northern Persian Gulf, Iran. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 31, 35-38.
  • FAO (2017). Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery (23.04.2017).
  • Gamboa R., Gomez, A. L. & Nievales, M. F. (2005). The status of sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in the Philippines. In: A. Lovatelli, C. Conand, S. Purcell, S. Uthicke, J.F. Hamel, A. Mercier (Eds): Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management (pp 69-78). Rome: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.463.
  • Guisado C., Carrasco, S.A., Guisado, D.D., Maltrain, R. & Rojas, H. (2012). Embryonic development, larval morphology and juvenile growth of the sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis (Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida). Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 47(1), 65-73.
  • Günay D., Emiroglu, D., Tolon, T., Ozden, O. & Saygi, H. (2015). Growth and Survival Rate of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers (Holothuria tubulosa, Gmelin, 1788) at Various Temperatures. Turkish Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences, 15, 533-541. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v15_2_41
  • Ivy G. & Giraspy, D. A. B. (2006). Development of large-scale hatchery production techniques for the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra veriscolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 24, 28-34.
  • İsgören-Emiroglu, D. & Günay, D. (2007). The effect of sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa G. 1788 on nutrient and organic matter contents of bottom sediment of oligotrophic and hypereutrophic shores. Fresenius Environment Bulletin, 16, 290-294.
  • James, D. B., Gandhi, A. D., Palaniswamy, N., & Rodrigo, J. X. (1994). Hatchery techniques and culture of the sea-cucumber Holothuria scabra. CMFRI Special Publication, 57, 1-40.
  • James D. (1996). Culture of sea-cucumber. Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 48, 120-126.
  • Kashenko S. D. (2005). Responses of Embryos and Larvae of the Starfish Asterias amurensis to Changes in Temperature and Salinity. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 31(5), 294-302.DOI: 10.1007/s11179-005-0091-9
  • Liu G., Yang, H. & Liu, S. (2010). Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 28(4), 842-848. DOI: 10.1007/s00343-010-9092-4
  • Morgan, A. D. (2009). Assessment of egg and larval quality during hatchery production of the temperate sea cucumber, Australostichopus mollis (Levin). Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 40(5), 629-642.DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2009.00283.x
  • Ocaña A. & Tocino L. S. (2005). Spawning of Holothuria tubulosa (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata) in the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Zoologica Baetica, 16, 147-150.
  • Pia T. S., Johnson, T & George, S.B. (2012). Salinity-induced morphological changes in Pisaster ochraceus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) larvae. Journal of Plankton Research, 34(7), 590-601.
  • Pitt R., Thu, N., Minh, M. & Phuc, H. (2001). Preliminary sandfish growth trials in tanks, ponds and pens in Vietnam. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 15, 17-27.
  • Purcell S. W., Hair C.A. & Mills D.J. (2012). Sea cucumber culture, farming and sea ranching in the tropics: Progress, problems and opportunities. Aquaculture, 368, 68-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.08.053
  • Purcell S. W., Mercier, A. & Conand, C. (2013). Sea cucumber fisheries: Global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 14(1), 34-59. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00443.x
  • Raison C. (2008). Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and prospects for commercial culture of Holothuria scabra. CAB Reviews, 3(82), 1-15. DOI:10.1079/PAVSNNR20083082
  • Ramofafia C., Gervis, M. & Bell, J. (1995). Spawning and early larval rearing of Holothuria atra. SPC Bêche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 7, 2-6.
  • Santos R., Dias S., Pinteus S., Silva J., Alves Tecelao C., Pedrosa R. & Pompo A. (2015). Sea cucumber Holothuria forskali, a new resource for aquaculture? Reproductive biology and nutraceutical approach. Aquaculture Research, 47, 2307-2323. DOI: 10.1111/are.12683
  • Sicuro B., Levine J. (2011). Sea cucumber in the Mediterranean: a potential species for aquaculture in the Mediterranean. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19(3), 299-304.
  • Sui, X. (1989). The main factors influencing the larval development and survival rate of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Oceanologia Et Limnologia Sinica, 4, 314-321.
  • Tolon T., Emiroglu D., Günay D. & Saygi, H. (2015). Effect of Sediment Grain Size on Growth Performance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa). Turkish Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences, 15, 555-559.
  • Tolon T., Emiroğlu D., Günay D. & Hancı (2017). Effect of stocking density on growth performance of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Gmelin, 1788). Aquaculture Research, 48(8), 4124-4131. DOI: 10.1111/are.13232
  • Tuwo A. & Tresnati J. (2015). Sea Cucumber Farming in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam). In: N. P. Brown, S.D. Eddy (Eds): Echinoderm Aquaculture (pp 331-352). USA: John Wiley & Sons
  • Yanagisawa T. (1998). Aspects of the biology and culture of the sea cucumber. In: S. S. De Silva (Ed.): Tropical Mariculture (pp 291-308). London: Academic. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012210845-7/50009-X
  • Yaroslavtseva L. M. & Sergeeva, E.P. (2002). Sensitivity of embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius to effects of copper ions. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 28(6), 393-397. DOI: 10.1023/A:1021801231005

Farklı stok yoğunluklarının deniz hıyarı Holothuria tubulosa (Gmelin, 1788) yumurtalarının açılma ve yaşama oranlarına etkileri

Year 2018, Volume 35, Issue 4, 381 - 386, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2018.35.4.03

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, Holothuria tubulosa yumurtalarının, dört farklı stok yoğunluğunda (1,5,15,30 yumurta/ml) açılma ve yaşama oranlarını belirlemek ve aynı zamanda stok yoğunluğunun farklı evrelerdeki yumurta çapına ve larval boyutuna etkisini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Döllenmiş Holothuria tubulosa yumurtaları, 30 l hacimli silindir konik kollektörlere stoklanmıştır. Yumurtalar; döllenme anında, erken gastrulasyon, geç gastrulasyon ve yumurtadan çıkma aşamasında mikroskop altında sayılmıştır. Stok yoğunluğu ile açılma oranı arasında ters ilişki olduğu bulunmuştur (r = -0.848; p<0.001). En düşük açılma ve yaşama oranı 30 yumurta/ml  stoklandığı deneme grubunda saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Ancak farklı stok yoğunlukları farklı embriyolojik safhalardaki yumurtanın çapını (p>0.05) ve 65. saatteki erken auricularia larvasının boyunu (p>0.05) etkilememiştir. Sonuç olarak, Holothuria tubulosa’nın döllenmiş yumurtalarının en yüksek açılma ve yaşama oranları için optimum stoklama yoğunluğu 1-5 yumurta / ml olmuştur.

References

  • Agudo, N. (2006). Sandfish hatchery techniques. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the World Fish Centre. Noumea: New Caledonia.
  • Asha, P. & Diwakar, K. (2013). Effect of stocking density on the hatching rate, larval and early juvenile rearing of edible sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1883). Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Science, 42, 191-195.
  • Battaglene S. C., Seymour, J. E. Ramofafia, C & Lane, I. (2002). Spawning induction of three tropical sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra, H. fuscogilva and Actinopyga mauritiana. Aquaculture, 207(1), 29-47. DOI:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00725-6
  • Battaglene S. C. & Bell, J. D. (1999). Potential of the tropical Indo-Pacific seacucumber, Holothuria scabra, for stock enhancement. In B.R. Howell, E. Moskness, T. Svasand (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching (pp 478-490). Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Choo P. S. (2008). Population status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in Asia. In: V., Toral-Granda, A. Lovatelli, M. Vasconcellos, M. (Eds.), Sea cucumbers A global review of fisheries and trade (pp 81-118). Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No.516.
  • Çakli Ş., Cadun, A., Kışla, D. & Dinçer, T. (2004). Determination of quality characteristics of Holothuria tubulosa, (Gmelin, 1788) in Turkish sea (Aegean Region) depending on sun drying process step used in Turkey. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 13(3), 69-28. DOI: 10.1300/J030v13n03_07
  • Dabbagh, A. R., Sedaghat, M. R., Rameshi, H. & Kamrani, E. (2011). Breeding and larval rearing of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt (Holothuria vegabunda Selenka) from the northern Persian Gulf, Iran. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 31, 35-38.
  • FAO (2017). Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery (23.04.2017).
  • Gamboa R., Gomez, A. L. & Nievales, M. F. (2005). The status of sea cucumber fishery and mariculture in the Philippines. In: A. Lovatelli, C. Conand, S. Purcell, S. Uthicke, J.F. Hamel, A. Mercier (Eds): Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management (pp 69-78). Rome: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No.463.
  • Guisado C., Carrasco, S.A., Guisado, D.D., Maltrain, R. & Rojas, H. (2012). Embryonic development, larval morphology and juvenile growth of the sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis (Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida). Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 47(1), 65-73.
  • Günay D., Emiroglu, D., Tolon, T., Ozden, O. & Saygi, H. (2015). Growth and Survival Rate of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers (Holothuria tubulosa, Gmelin, 1788) at Various Temperatures. Turkish Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences, 15, 533-541. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v15_2_41
  • Ivy G. & Giraspy, D. A. B. (2006). Development of large-scale hatchery production techniques for the commercially important sea cucumber Holothuria scabra veriscolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 24, 28-34.
  • İsgören-Emiroglu, D. & Günay, D. (2007). The effect of sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa G. 1788 on nutrient and organic matter contents of bottom sediment of oligotrophic and hypereutrophic shores. Fresenius Environment Bulletin, 16, 290-294.
  • James, D. B., Gandhi, A. D., Palaniswamy, N., & Rodrigo, J. X. (1994). Hatchery techniques and culture of the sea-cucumber Holothuria scabra. CMFRI Special Publication, 57, 1-40.
  • James D. (1996). Culture of sea-cucumber. Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 48, 120-126.
  • Kashenko S. D. (2005). Responses of Embryos and Larvae of the Starfish Asterias amurensis to Changes in Temperature and Salinity. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 31(5), 294-302.DOI: 10.1007/s11179-005-0091-9
  • Liu G., Yang, H. & Liu, S. (2010). Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 28(4), 842-848. DOI: 10.1007/s00343-010-9092-4
  • Morgan, A. D. (2009). Assessment of egg and larval quality during hatchery production of the temperate sea cucumber, Australostichopus mollis (Levin). Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 40(5), 629-642.DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2009.00283.x
  • Ocaña A. & Tocino L. S. (2005). Spawning of Holothuria tubulosa (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata) in the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Zoologica Baetica, 16, 147-150.
  • Pia T. S., Johnson, T & George, S.B. (2012). Salinity-induced morphological changes in Pisaster ochraceus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) larvae. Journal of Plankton Research, 34(7), 590-601.
  • Pitt R., Thu, N., Minh, M. & Phuc, H. (2001). Preliminary sandfish growth trials in tanks, ponds and pens in Vietnam. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 15, 17-27.
  • Purcell S. W., Hair C.A. & Mills D.J. (2012). Sea cucumber culture, farming and sea ranching in the tropics: Progress, problems and opportunities. Aquaculture, 368, 68-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.08.053
  • Purcell S. W., Mercier, A. & Conand, C. (2013). Sea cucumber fisheries: Global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 14(1), 34-59. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00443.x
  • Raison C. (2008). Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and prospects for commercial culture of Holothuria scabra. CAB Reviews, 3(82), 1-15. DOI:10.1079/PAVSNNR20083082
  • Ramofafia C., Gervis, M. & Bell, J. (1995). Spawning and early larval rearing of Holothuria atra. SPC Bêche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 7, 2-6.
  • Santos R., Dias S., Pinteus S., Silva J., Alves Tecelao C., Pedrosa R. & Pompo A. (2015). Sea cucumber Holothuria forskali, a new resource for aquaculture? Reproductive biology and nutraceutical approach. Aquaculture Research, 47, 2307-2323. DOI: 10.1111/are.12683
  • Sicuro B., Levine J. (2011). Sea cucumber in the Mediterranean: a potential species for aquaculture in the Mediterranean. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19(3), 299-304.
  • Sui, X. (1989). The main factors influencing the larval development and survival rate of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Oceanologia Et Limnologia Sinica, 4, 314-321.
  • Tolon T., Emiroglu D., Günay D. & Saygi, H. (2015). Effect of Sediment Grain Size on Growth Performance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa). Turkish Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences, 15, 555-559.
  • Tolon T., Emiroğlu D., Günay D. & Hancı (2017). Effect of stocking density on growth performance of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Gmelin, 1788). Aquaculture Research, 48(8), 4124-4131. DOI: 10.1111/are.13232
  • Tuwo A. & Tresnati J. (2015). Sea Cucumber Farming in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam). In: N. P. Brown, S.D. Eddy (Eds): Echinoderm Aquaculture (pp 331-352). USA: John Wiley & Sons
  • Yanagisawa T. (1998). Aspects of the biology and culture of the sea cucumber. In: S. S. De Silva (Ed.): Tropical Mariculture (pp 291-308). London: Academic. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012210845-7/50009-X
  • Yaroslavtseva L. M. & Sergeeva, E.P. (2002). Sensitivity of embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius to effects of copper ions. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 28(6), 393-397. DOI: 10.1023/A:1021801231005

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Deniz GÜNAY (Primary Author)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-0069-4703
Türkiye


Mustafa Tolga TOLON
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-2233-0663
Türkiye


Dilek EMİROĞLU This is me
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ, YETİŞTİRİCİLİK ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-8371-6407
Türkiye

Publication Date December 15, 2018
Application Date May 15, 2018
Acceptance Date July 11, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 35, Issue 4

Cite

APA Günay, D. , Tolon, M. T. & Emiroğlu, D. (2018). Effects of various stocking densities on hatching and survival rates of sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa eggs (Gmelin, 1788) . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 35 (4) , 381-386 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2018.35.4.03