Research Article
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Effects of vitamin E, selenium and vitamin C on various biomarkers following oxidative stress caused by diazinon exposure in rainbow trout

Year 2015, Volume 32, Issue 3, 151 - 158, 16.01.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2015.32.3.05

Abstract

: Biochemical parameters are appropriate biomarkers to assess the effects of pesticides on an aquatic ecosystem. Diazinon is an organophosphate pesticide whose metabolism in fish body produces reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative stress. In this study, Oncorhynchus mykiss were allocated into four treatment groups (with three replicates): control; Diazinon; vitamin C + diazinon, and vitamin E,selenium + diazinon. Blood samples were obtained after two and four weeks and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. SOD activity was significantly lower in diazinon-exposed fish than in the control group. However, there were no differences between the two supplemented groups and the control group in this regard. CAT activity was significantly higher in all three diazinon-exposed groups compared to the control group. However vitamin E, selenium had the least difference with the control group. Maximum and minimum TAC were observed respectively in fish supplemented with vitamin E, selenium and those only exposed to diazinon. The diazinon group also had the highest MDA levels. The two supplemented groups and the control group had no significant differences in MDA levels. These findings highlighted the antioxidant effects of supplementation with vitamin E, selenium or vitamin C against free radical produced during the metabolism of diazinon. Meanwhile, the combination of vitamin E, selenium had higher antioxidant effects than vitamin C. Moreover, SOD, the first defensive barrier against superoxide radicals, and MDA, an index of cellular damage induced by hydroxyl radicals, are the most suitable indicators to assess the effects of diazinon.

References

  • Aebi, H., 1984. "Catalase in vitro." Methods Enzymol, 105: 121-126. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(84)05016-3
  • Arthur, J.W., Zischke, J.A., Allen, K.N., Hermanutz, R.O., 1983. Effects of diazinon on macroinvertebrates and insect emergence in outdoor experimental channels. Aquat Toxicol, 4(4): 283-301. doi:10.1016/0166-445x(83)90023-1
  • Banaee, M., Sureda, A., Mirvaghefi, A.R., Ahmadi, K., 2011. Effects of diazinon on biochemical parameters of blood in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 99 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/pestbp.2010.09.001
  • Bell, J.G., Adron, J.W., Cowey, C.B., 1986. Effect of selenium deficiency on hydroperoxide stimulated release of glutathione from isolated perfused liver of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br J Nutr 56 (2): 421-428. doi:10.1079/BJN19860122
  • Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W., Pirie, B.J.S., 1987. Some effects of selenium deficiency on enzyme activities and indices of tissue peroxidation in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 65 (1): 43-54. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(87)90269-9
  • Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W., Shanks, A.M., 1985. Some effect of vitamin E and selenium deprivation on tissue enzyme levels and indices of tissue peroxidaion in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br J Nutr 53 (1): 149-157. doi:10.1079/BJN19850019
  • Cheung, C.C.C., Zheng, G.S., Li, A.M.Y., Richardson, B.J., Lam, P.K.S., 2001. Relationship between tissue concentrations of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and antioxidative responses of marine mussels, Perna viridis. Aquat Toxicol 52 (3-4): 189-203. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(00)00145-4
  • Das, K.C., Lewis-Molock, Y., White, C.W., 1997. Elevation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression by thioredoxin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 17 (6): 713-726. doi:10.1165.ajrcmb.17.6.2809
  • Di Giulio, R. T., Meyer, J.N., 2008. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. In The Toxicology of Fishes, edited by Di Giulio, R. T., and D. E. Hinton, 273-324. FL: CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Doba, T., Burton, G.W., Ingold, K.U., 1985. Antioxidant and co-antioxidant activity of vitamin C. The effect of vitamin C, either alone or in the presence of vitamin E or a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, upon the peroxidation of aqueous multi lamellar phospholipid liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 835 (2): 298-303. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(85)90285-1
  • Durmaz, H., Sevgiler, Y., Uner, N., 2006. Tissue-specific antioxidative and neurotoxic responses to diazinon in oreochromis niloticus. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiol 84 (3): 215-226. doi:1016/j.pestbp.2005.07.004
  • Eisler, R. 1998. Diazinon hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review. Biological report 85, Washington DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife service.
  • Fujii, Y., Asaka S., 1982. Metabolism of diazinon and diazoxon in fish liver preparations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29 (4): 455-460. doi:10.1007/BF01605611
  • Goth, L. 1991. A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clin Chim Acta 196 (2-3): 143-152. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(91)90067-M
  • Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M., 1990. The antioxidants of human extracellular fluids. Arch Biochem Biophys 280 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(90)90510-6
  • Hazarika, A., Sarkar, S.N., Hajare, S., Kataria, M., Malik, J.K., 2003. Influence of malathion pretreatment on the toxicity of anilofos in male rats: a biochemical interaction study. Toxicology 185 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/s0300-483x(02)00574-7
  • Hillton, J.W., Hodson, P.V., Slinger, S.J., 1980. The requirement and toxicity of selenium in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Nutr 110 (12): 2527-2535.
  • Isik, I., Celik, I., 2008. Acute effects of methyl parathion and diazinon as inducers for oxidative stress on certain biomarkers in various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 92 (1): 38-42. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.06.001
  • Jarvinen, A. W., Tanner, D.K., 1982. Toxicity of selected controlled release and corresponding unformulated technical grade pesticides to the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Environ Pollut 27 (3): 179-195. doi:10.1016/01471(82)90024-1
  • Kadry, S.M., Marzouk, M.S., Amer, A.F., Hanna, M.I., Azmy, A.H., Hamed, H.S., 2012. Vitamin E as antioxidant in female african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to chronic toxicity of atrazine. Egyption Journal Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 16 (2): 83-98. doi:10.1016/s0013-9351 (02)0006-2
  • Karaoz, E., Gultekin, F., Akdogan, M., Oncu, M., Gokcimen, A., 2002. Protective role of melatonin and a combination of vitamin C and E on lung toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos-ethyl in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 54 (2): 97-108. doi:10.1078/0940-2993-00236
  • Keizer, J., D’Agostino, G., Nagel, R., Volpe, T., Gnemi, P., Vittozzi. L., 1995. Enzymological differences of AchE and diazinon hepatic metabolism: correlation of in vitro data with the selective toxicity of diazinon to fish species. Sci Total Environ 171 (1-3): 213-220. doi:10.1016/0049-9697(95)04687-0
  • Koprucu, S.S., Koprucu, K., Ural, M.S., Ispir, U., Pala, M., 2006. Acute toxicity of organophosphorous pesticide diazinon and its effects on behavior and some hematological parameters of fingerling European catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 86 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.02.001
  • Koracevic, D., Koracevic, G., Djordjevic, V., Andrejevic, S., Cosic, V., 2001. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol 54 (5): 356-361. doi:10.1136/jcp.54.5.356
  • Ledwozyw, A., Michalak, J., Stepien, A.K., Adziolka. A., 1986. The relationship between plasma triglycerides, total lipids and lipid peroxidation products during huma atherosclerosis. Clin Chim Acta 155 (3): 275-284. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(86)90247-0
  • Mahfouz, R., Sharma, R., Sharma, D., Sabanegh, E., Agarwal, A., 2009. Diagnostic value of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in human seminal plasma. Fertil Steril 91 (3): 805-811. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.01.022
  • Marklund, S., Marklund, G., 1974. Involvement of the superoxyde anion radical in the auto oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxyde dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47 (3): 469-474. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x
  • McCord, J.M., Fridovich, I., 1969. Superoxide dismutase: an enzymic function for erythrocuprein. J Biol Chem 244 (22): 6049-6055. doi:10.1074/jbc.244.22.6049
  • Miller, N.J., Rice-Evans, C., Davies, M.J., Gopinathan, V., Milner, A., 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci 84 (4): 407-412. doi:10.1042/cs0840407
  • Monteiro, D.A., Almeida, J.A.D., Rantin, F.T. Kalinin, A.L., 2006. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish, Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphorus insecticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 143 (2): 141-149. doi:10/1016 j.cbpc.2006.01.004
  • Moreau, R., Dabrowski, K., Czesny, S., Chila, F., 1999. VitaminC-vitamin E interaction in juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), a fish able synthesize ascorbic acid. J Appl Ich-thyol 15 (4-5): 205-257. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426-1999/tb00245.x
  • Payne, J.F., Fancey, L.L., Rahimtula, A.D. Porter, E.L., 1987. Review and perspective on the use of mixed-function oxygenase enzymes in biological moitoring. Comp Biochem Physiol C 86 (2): 233-245. doi :10.1016/0742-8413(87)90074-0
  • Pereira, B., Rosa, L.F., Safi, D.A., Bechara, E.J., Curi, R., 1995. Hormonal regulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in ratmacrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 50 (12): 2093-2098. doi :10.1016/0006-2952(95)02116-7
  • Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G., Hoekstra, W.G., 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179 (4073): 585-590. doi :10.1126/science.179.4073.588
  • Sies, H., Stahl, W., 1995. Vitamins E and C, betacarotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 62 (6 Suppl): 1315S-1321S. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb17085.x
  • Ural, M.S. 2013. Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio carpio: Ameliorative effect of lycopene. Chemosphere 90 (7): 2059-2064. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.006
  • U.S.EPA. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Diazinon." EPA 738-R-04-006, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1-112.
  • Valavanidis, A., Vlahogianni, T., Dassenakis, M., Scoullos, M., 2006. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64 (2): 178-189. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv/2005.03.013
  • Vale, J.A. 1998. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects of organophosphorus OP insecticide poisoning. Toxicol Lett 102-103: 649-652. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00277-X
  • Van der Oost, R., Beyer, J., Vermeulen, N.P.E., 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13 (2): 57-149. doi:10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6
  • Verlhac, V., Gabaudan, J., 1997. The effect of vitamin C on Fish Health. Basel: Roche Technical Buletin, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland, 30 pp.
  • Verlhac, V., Obach, A., Gabaudan, J., Schüep, W., Hole, R., 1998. ",Immunomodulation by dietary vitamin C and glucan in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8 (6): 409-424. doi:10.1006/fsim/1998.0148
  • Virtue, W.A., Clayton, J.W., 1997. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution. Sci Total Environ 194-195: 207-217. doi:10.1016/s0048-9697(96)05365-x
  • Watanabe, T., Takeuchi, T., Wada, M., 1981. Dietary lipid levels and a-tocopherol requirement of carp. Bulletin of The Japanes Socity of Scientific Fisheries 47: 1585-1590. doi:10.2331/suisan.47.1585
  • Winston, G.W., Di Giulio, R.T., 1991. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms in aquatic organisms. Aquat Toxicol 19 (2): 137-161. doi:10.1016/s0891-5849(97)00277-3
  • Xing, H., Li, S., Wong, Z., Gao, X., Xu, S., Wang, X., 2012. Oxidative stress response and histopathological changes due to atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure in common carp. Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 103 (1): 74-80. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.03.007
  • Zama, D., Meraihi, Z., Tebibel, S., Benayssa, W., Benayache, F., Benayache, S., Vlitinck, A.J., 2007. Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage in the liver, kidney, brain and fetus in pregnant rats: the protective role of the butanolic extract of Paronychie argentea L. Indian Pharmacol 39 (3): 145-150. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.33434

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Year 2015, Volume 32, Issue 3, 151 - 158, 16.01.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2015.32.3.05

Abstract

-

References

  • Aebi, H., 1984. "Catalase in vitro." Methods Enzymol, 105: 121-126. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(84)05016-3
  • Arthur, J.W., Zischke, J.A., Allen, K.N., Hermanutz, R.O., 1983. Effects of diazinon on macroinvertebrates and insect emergence in outdoor experimental channels. Aquat Toxicol, 4(4): 283-301. doi:10.1016/0166-445x(83)90023-1
  • Banaee, M., Sureda, A., Mirvaghefi, A.R., Ahmadi, K., 2011. Effects of diazinon on biochemical parameters of blood in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 99 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/pestbp.2010.09.001
  • Bell, J.G., Adron, J.W., Cowey, C.B., 1986. Effect of selenium deficiency on hydroperoxide stimulated release of glutathione from isolated perfused liver of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br J Nutr 56 (2): 421-428. doi:10.1079/BJN19860122
  • Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W., Pirie, B.J.S., 1987. Some effects of selenium deficiency on enzyme activities and indices of tissue peroxidation in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 65 (1): 43-54. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(87)90269-9
  • Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W., Shanks, A.M., 1985. Some effect of vitamin E and selenium deprivation on tissue enzyme levels and indices of tissue peroxidaion in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br J Nutr 53 (1): 149-157. doi:10.1079/BJN19850019
  • Cheung, C.C.C., Zheng, G.S., Li, A.M.Y., Richardson, B.J., Lam, P.K.S., 2001. Relationship between tissue concentrations of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and antioxidative responses of marine mussels, Perna viridis. Aquat Toxicol 52 (3-4): 189-203. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(00)00145-4
  • Das, K.C., Lewis-Molock, Y., White, C.W., 1997. Elevation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression by thioredoxin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 17 (6): 713-726. doi:10.1165.ajrcmb.17.6.2809
  • Di Giulio, R. T., Meyer, J.N., 2008. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. In The Toxicology of Fishes, edited by Di Giulio, R. T., and D. E. Hinton, 273-324. FL: CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Doba, T., Burton, G.W., Ingold, K.U., 1985. Antioxidant and co-antioxidant activity of vitamin C. The effect of vitamin C, either alone or in the presence of vitamin E or a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, upon the peroxidation of aqueous multi lamellar phospholipid liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 835 (2): 298-303. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(85)90285-1
  • Durmaz, H., Sevgiler, Y., Uner, N., 2006. Tissue-specific antioxidative and neurotoxic responses to diazinon in oreochromis niloticus. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiol 84 (3): 215-226. doi:1016/j.pestbp.2005.07.004
  • Eisler, R. 1998. Diazinon hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review. Biological report 85, Washington DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife service.
  • Fujii, Y., Asaka S., 1982. Metabolism of diazinon and diazoxon in fish liver preparations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29 (4): 455-460. doi:10.1007/BF01605611
  • Goth, L. 1991. A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clin Chim Acta 196 (2-3): 143-152. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(91)90067-M
  • Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M., 1990. The antioxidants of human extracellular fluids. Arch Biochem Biophys 280 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(90)90510-6
  • Hazarika, A., Sarkar, S.N., Hajare, S., Kataria, M., Malik, J.K., 2003. Influence of malathion pretreatment on the toxicity of anilofos in male rats: a biochemical interaction study. Toxicology 185 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/s0300-483x(02)00574-7
  • Hillton, J.W., Hodson, P.V., Slinger, S.J., 1980. The requirement and toxicity of selenium in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Nutr 110 (12): 2527-2535.
  • Isik, I., Celik, I., 2008. Acute effects of methyl parathion and diazinon as inducers for oxidative stress on certain biomarkers in various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 92 (1): 38-42. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.06.001
  • Jarvinen, A. W., Tanner, D.K., 1982. Toxicity of selected controlled release and corresponding unformulated technical grade pesticides to the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Environ Pollut 27 (3): 179-195. doi:10.1016/01471(82)90024-1
  • Kadry, S.M., Marzouk, M.S., Amer, A.F., Hanna, M.I., Azmy, A.H., Hamed, H.S., 2012. Vitamin E as antioxidant in female african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to chronic toxicity of atrazine. Egyption Journal Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 16 (2): 83-98. doi:10.1016/s0013-9351 (02)0006-2
  • Karaoz, E., Gultekin, F., Akdogan, M., Oncu, M., Gokcimen, A., 2002. Protective role of melatonin and a combination of vitamin C and E on lung toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos-ethyl in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 54 (2): 97-108. doi:10.1078/0940-2993-00236
  • Keizer, J., D’Agostino, G., Nagel, R., Volpe, T., Gnemi, P., Vittozzi. L., 1995. Enzymological differences of AchE and diazinon hepatic metabolism: correlation of in vitro data with the selective toxicity of diazinon to fish species. Sci Total Environ 171 (1-3): 213-220. doi:10.1016/0049-9697(95)04687-0
  • Koprucu, S.S., Koprucu, K., Ural, M.S., Ispir, U., Pala, M., 2006. Acute toxicity of organophosphorous pesticide diazinon and its effects on behavior and some hematological parameters of fingerling European catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 86 (2): 99-105. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.02.001
  • Koracevic, D., Koracevic, G., Djordjevic, V., Andrejevic, S., Cosic, V., 2001. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol 54 (5): 356-361. doi:10.1136/jcp.54.5.356
  • Ledwozyw, A., Michalak, J., Stepien, A.K., Adziolka. A., 1986. The relationship between plasma triglycerides, total lipids and lipid peroxidation products during huma atherosclerosis. Clin Chim Acta 155 (3): 275-284. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(86)90247-0
  • Mahfouz, R., Sharma, R., Sharma, D., Sabanegh, E., Agarwal, A., 2009. Diagnostic value of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in human seminal plasma. Fertil Steril 91 (3): 805-811. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.01.022
  • Marklund, S., Marklund, G., 1974. Involvement of the superoxyde anion radical in the auto oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxyde dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47 (3): 469-474. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x
  • McCord, J.M., Fridovich, I., 1969. Superoxide dismutase: an enzymic function for erythrocuprein. J Biol Chem 244 (22): 6049-6055. doi:10.1074/jbc.244.22.6049
  • Miller, N.J., Rice-Evans, C., Davies, M.J., Gopinathan, V., Milner, A., 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci 84 (4): 407-412. doi:10.1042/cs0840407
  • Monteiro, D.A., Almeida, J.A.D., Rantin, F.T. Kalinin, A.L., 2006. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish, Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphorus insecticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 143 (2): 141-149. doi:10/1016 j.cbpc.2006.01.004
  • Moreau, R., Dabrowski, K., Czesny, S., Chila, F., 1999. VitaminC-vitamin E interaction in juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), a fish able synthesize ascorbic acid. J Appl Ich-thyol 15 (4-5): 205-257. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426-1999/tb00245.x
  • Payne, J.F., Fancey, L.L., Rahimtula, A.D. Porter, E.L., 1987. Review and perspective on the use of mixed-function oxygenase enzymes in biological moitoring. Comp Biochem Physiol C 86 (2): 233-245. doi :10.1016/0742-8413(87)90074-0
  • Pereira, B., Rosa, L.F., Safi, D.A., Bechara, E.J., Curi, R., 1995. Hormonal regulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in ratmacrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 50 (12): 2093-2098. doi :10.1016/0006-2952(95)02116-7
  • Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G., Hoekstra, W.G., 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179 (4073): 585-590. doi :10.1126/science.179.4073.588
  • Sies, H., Stahl, W., 1995. Vitamins E and C, betacarotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 62 (6 Suppl): 1315S-1321S. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb17085.x
  • Ural, M.S. 2013. Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio carpio: Ameliorative effect of lycopene. Chemosphere 90 (7): 2059-2064. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.006
  • U.S.EPA. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Diazinon." EPA 738-R-04-006, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1-112.
  • Valavanidis, A., Vlahogianni, T., Dassenakis, M., Scoullos, M., 2006. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64 (2): 178-189. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv/2005.03.013
  • Vale, J.A. 1998. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects of organophosphorus OP insecticide poisoning. Toxicol Lett 102-103: 649-652. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00277-X
  • Van der Oost, R., Beyer, J., Vermeulen, N.P.E., 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13 (2): 57-149. doi:10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6
  • Verlhac, V., Gabaudan, J., 1997. The effect of vitamin C on Fish Health. Basel: Roche Technical Buletin, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland, 30 pp.
  • Verlhac, V., Obach, A., Gabaudan, J., Schüep, W., Hole, R., 1998. ",Immunomodulation by dietary vitamin C and glucan in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8 (6): 409-424. doi:10.1006/fsim/1998.0148
  • Virtue, W.A., Clayton, J.W., 1997. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution. Sci Total Environ 194-195: 207-217. doi:10.1016/s0048-9697(96)05365-x
  • Watanabe, T., Takeuchi, T., Wada, M., 1981. Dietary lipid levels and a-tocopherol requirement of carp. Bulletin of The Japanes Socity of Scientific Fisheries 47: 1585-1590. doi:10.2331/suisan.47.1585
  • Winston, G.W., Di Giulio, R.T., 1991. Prooxidant and antioxidant mechanisms in aquatic organisms. Aquat Toxicol 19 (2): 137-161. doi:10.1016/s0891-5849(97)00277-3
  • Xing, H., Li, S., Wong, Z., Gao, X., Xu, S., Wang, X., 2012. Oxidative stress response and histopathological changes due to atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure in common carp. Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology 103 (1): 74-80. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.03.007
  • Zama, D., Meraihi, Z., Tebibel, S., Benayssa, W., Benayache, F., Benayache, S., Vlitinck, A.J., 2007. Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage in the liver, kidney, brain and fetus in pregnant rats: the protective role of the butanolic extract of Paronychie argentea L. Indian Pharmacol 39 (3): 145-150. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.33434

Effects of vitamin E, selenium and vitamin C on various biomarkers following oxidative stress caused by diazinon exposure in rainbow trout

Year 2015, Volume 32, Issue 3, 151 - 158, 16.01.2016
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2015.32.3.05

Abstract

References

  • Aebi, H., 1984. "Catalase in vitro." Methods Enzymol, 105: 121-126. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(84)05016-3
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Marine Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mohsen Ali This is me


Alireza Mirvaghefi This is me


Farzad Asadi This is me

Publication Date January 16, 2016
Application Date January 16, 2016
Acceptance Date September 29, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 32, Issue 3

Cite

APA Ali, M. , Mirvaghefi, A. & Asadi, F. (2016). Effects of vitamin E, selenium and vitamin C on various biomarkers following oxidative stress caused by diazinon exposure in rainbow trout . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 32 (3) , 151-158 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2015.32.3.05