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Effects of dietary pea protein concentrate on growth performance, biological parameters, body composition and total ammonia-nitrogen excretion of meagre (Argyrosomus regius)

Yıl 2017, Cilt 34, Sayı 1, 17 - 23, 21.02.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.1.03

Öz

Using of alternative plant/animal based (except fish meal) raw materials is one of the most important application for decreasing feed cost in finfish feeds. Meagre which is demanded from many countries because of its efficient meat quality and flovur and showed rapid growth under culture conditions is a potential species. A nutrition trial with meagre, Argyrosomus regius was undertaken to evaluate the effect of replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) protein with pea protein concentrate (PPC). A diet with FM as the main protein source was used for the control diet (FM). Four experimental diets were formulated to progressively replace 15% (PPC15), 30% (PPC30), 45% (PPC45) and 60% (PPC60) of FM protein. The study was carried out in 450-L fiberglass tanks connected to a closed recirculation system. Eighteen fish per tank were randomly distributed into 15 tanks with three replicates. The diets were tested in triplicate for 12 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed diet PPC15 were not significantly different compared to fish fed the FM diet (P>0.05). Meagre fed FM, PPC15 and PPC30 had significantly lower FCR compared with fish fed PPC45 and PPC60 (P<0.05). Total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) excretion increased with elevated dietary PPC inclusion. In conclusion, using 15% of pea protein concentrate in meagre feeds has been recommended.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 19th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  • Ballestrazzi, R., Lanari, D., Agaro, D.E. & Mion, A. (1994). The effect of dietary protein level and source on growth, body composition, total ammonia and reactive phosphate excretion of growing sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Aquaculture, 127:197-206. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)90426-X
  • Bansemer, M., Forder, R., Howarth, G., Suitor, G., Bowyer, J. & Stone, D. (2015). The effect of dietary soybean meal and soy protein concentrate on the intestinal mucus layer and development of subacute enteritis in Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) at suboptimal water temperature. Aquaculture Nutrition, 21:300-310. doi: 10.1111/anu.12160
  • Bowyer, J., Qin, J., Smullen, R., Adams, L., Thomson, M. & Stone, D. (2013). The use of a soy product in juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) feeds at different water temperatures: 2. Soy protein concentrate. Aquaculture, 410-411:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.06.001
  • Buentello, A., Jirsa, D., Barrows, F.T. & Drawbridge, M. (2015). Minimizing fish meal use in juvenile California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi, diets using non-GM soybeans selectively bred for aquafeeds. Aquaculture, 435:403-411. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.10.027
  • Cheng, Z.J., Hardy, R.W. & Usry, J.L. (2003). Effects of lysine supplementation in plant protein-based diets on the performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients. Aquaculture, 215(1-4):255-265. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00166-7
  • Deng, J., Mai, K., Ai, Q., Zhang, W., Wang, X., Xu, W. & Liufu, Z. (2006). Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate on feed intake and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture, 258:503-513. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.04.004
  • Emre, Y., Kurtoğlu, A., Emre, N., Güroy, B. & Güroy, D. 2016. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and haematological parameters of juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius. Aquaculture Research. doi: 10.1111/are.12677
  • Engin, K. & Carter, C.G. (2001). Ammonia and urea excretion rates of juvenile Australian short-finned eel (Anguilla australis australis) as influenced by dietary protein level. Aquaculture, 194:123-136. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00506-8
  • Engin, K. & Carter, C.G. (2005). Fish meal replacement by plant and animal by-products in diets for the Australian short-finned eel, Anguilla australis australis (Richardson). Aquaculture Research, 36:445-454. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01224.x
  • FAO. (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <http://www.fao.org/statistics> (25.04.2016).
  • Grey, M., Forster, I., Dominy, W., Ako, H. & Giesen, A.F. (2009). Validation of a feeding stimulant bioassay using fish hydrolysates for the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 40(4):547-555. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2009.00264.x
  • Güroy, B., Mantoğlu, S., Merrifield, D.L. & Guroy, D. (2014). Effects of dietary Nutrafito Plus on growth, haemotological parameters and total ammonia-nitrogen excretion of juvenile striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Aquaculture Research, 47(6):1770-1777. doi: 10.1111/are.12634
  • Güroy, D., Güroy, B., Merrifield, D.L., Tekinay, A.A., Davies, S.J. & Şahin, İ. (2012). Effects of fish oil and partial fish meal substitution with oilseed oils and meals on growth performance, nutrient utilization and health of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture International, 20(3):481-497. doi: 10.1007/s10499-011-9479-z
  • Güroy, D., Şahin, İ., Güroy, B., Merrifield, D.L., Bulut, M. & Tekinay, A.A. (2013). Replacement of fishmeal with rice protein concentrate in practical diets for European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reared at winter temperatures. Aquaculture Research, 44(3):462-471. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.03053.x
  • Hansen, A.-C., Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, Ø., Koppe, W. & Hemre, G.-I. (2007). Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) I - Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture, 272(1-4):599-611. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.08.034
  • Kader, M., Koshio, S., Ishikawa, M., Yokoyama, S. & Bulbul, M. (2010). Supplemental effects of some crude ingredients in improving nutritive values of low fishmeal diets for red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture, 308:136-144. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.07.037
  • Kaushik, S.J., Covès, D., Dutto, G. & Blanc, D. (2004). Almost total replacement of fishmeal by plant protein sources in the diet of a marine teleost, the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 230:391-404. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00422-8
  • Kissinger, K., García-Ortega, A. & Trushenski, J.T. (2016). Partial fish meal replacement by soy protein concentrate, squid and algal meals in low fish-oil diets containing Schizochytrium limacinum for longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana. Aquaculture, 452:37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.10.022
  • Penn, M.H., Bendiksen, E.Å., Campbell, P. & Krogdahl, Å. (2011). High level of dietary pea protein concentrate induces enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 310:267-273. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.10.040
  • Phumee, P., Wei, W.Y., Ramachandran, S. & Hashim, R. (2011). Evaluation of soybean meal in the formulated diets for juvenile Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878). Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2):214-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00729.x
  • Robaina, L., Izquierdo, M.S., Moyamo, F.J., Socorro, J., Vergara, J.M., Montero, D. & Fernandez-Palacios, H. (1995). Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): Nutritional and histological implication. Aquaculture, 130:219-233. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)00225-D
  • Salze G., McLean, E., Battle, P.R., Schwarz, M.H. & Craig, S.R. (2010). Use of soy protein concentrate and novel ingredients in the total elimination of fish meal and fish oil in diets for juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture, 298:294-299. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.11.003
  • Sánchez-Lozano, N.B., Martínez-Llorens, S., Tomás-Vidal, A. & Cerdá, M.J. (2009). Effect of high-level fish meal replacement by pea and rice concentrate protein on growth, nutrient utilization and fillet quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, L.). Aquaculture, 298:83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.09.028
  • Sánchez-Lozano, N.B., Martínez-Llorens, S., Tomás-Vidal, A. & Jover Cerdá, M. (2011). Amino acid retention of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fed with pea protein concentrate. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2):604-614. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00803.x
  • Smith, D.M., Tabrett, S.J., Glencross, B.D., Irvin, S.J. & Barclay, M.C. (2007). Digestibility of lupin kernel meals in feeds for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 264:353-362. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.002
  • Storebakken, T., Shearer, K.D. & Roem, A.J. (2000). Growth, uptake and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus, and absorption of other minerals in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fed diets with fish meal and soy protein concentrate as the main sources of protein. Aquaculture Nutrition, 6:103-108. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2095.2000.00135.x
  • Takagi, S., Shimeno, S., Hosokawa, H. & Ukawa, M. (2001). Effect of lysine and methionine supplementation to a soy protein concentrate diet for red sea bream Pagrus major. Fisheries Science, 67(6):1088-1096. doi: 10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00365.x
  • Tantikitti, C., Sangpong, W. & Chiavareesajja, S. (2005). Effects of defatted soybean protein levels on growth performance and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Aquaculture, 248:41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.04.027
  • TurkStat. (2016). Turkish Statistical Institute. <http://www.turkstat.gov.tr> (25.04.2016).
  • Vallés, R. & Estévez, A. (2013). Light conditions for larval rearing of meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Aquaculture, 376-379:15-19. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.11.011
  • Welch, A., Hoenig, R., Stieglitz, J., Benetti, D., Tacon, A., Sims, N. & O'Hanlon, B. (2010). From fishing to the sustainable farming of carnivorous marine finfish. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18(3):235-247. doi: 10.1080/10641262.2010.504865
  • Yang, Y.H., Wang, Y.Y., Lu, Y. & Li, Q.Z. (2011). Effect of replacing fish meal with soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 19:405-419. doi: 10.1007/s10499-010-9359-y

Bezelye protein konsantresinin granyöz (Argyrosomus regius) balıklarında büyüme performansı, biyolojik parametreler, vücut kompozisyonu ve amonyak boşaltımı üzerine etkileri

Yıl 2017, Cilt 34, Sayı 1, 17 - 23, 21.02.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.1.03

Öz

Balık yemlerinde yem maliyetini düşürmek için uygulanan stratejilerden birisi de balık unu yerine alternatif bitkisel/hayvansal hammaddelerin kullanımıdır. Granyöz balığı, verimli et kalitesi ve lezzeti ile birçok ülkede talep gören ve kültür koşulları altında hızlı gelişim gösteren potansiyel bir türdür. Bu sebeple balık unu yerine bezelye protein konsantresinin (BPK) granyöz balığının (Argyrosomus regius) büyümesi, vücut kompozisyonu ve amonyak boşaltımı üzerine olan etkilerini belirlemek için bir besleme denemesi yürütülmüştür. Kontrol gruplarında temel protein kaynağı olarak balık unu bulunan bir yem kullanılmıştır. Balık unu proteini yerine %15 (BPK15), %30 (BPK30), %45 (BPK45) ve %60 (BPK60) oranında 4 farklı deneme yemi hazırlanmıştır. Deneme 450 L hacme sahip dairesel fiberglas tankların bulunduğu kapalı devre deniz sisteminde yürütülmüştür. Her tanka 18 adet balık stoklanmış ve deneme üç tekrarlı olarak 15 adet tankta, 12 hafta boyunca yürütülmüştür. BPK15 yemi ile beslenen balıkların spesifik büyüme oranı (SBO) kontrol yemi ile karşılaştırıldığında aralarında farklılık bulunmamıştır (P>0,05). Kontrol yemi, BPK15 ve BPK30 yemleriyle beslenen balıkların yem değerlendirme oranı, BPK45 ve BPK60 yemleriyle beslenen balıklarınkinden önemli derecede daha düşüktür (P<0,05). Toplam amonyak boşaltımı yemdeki bezelye protein konsantresi seviyesiyle birlikte artmıştır. Sonuç olarak, granyöz balıkları yeminde balık unu proteini yerine %15 oranında bezelye protein konsantresinin kullanılması önerilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 19th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  • Ballestrazzi, R., Lanari, D., Agaro, D.E. & Mion, A. (1994). The effect of dietary protein level and source on growth, body composition, total ammonia and reactive phosphate excretion of growing sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Aquaculture, 127:197-206. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)90426-X
  • Bansemer, M., Forder, R., Howarth, G., Suitor, G., Bowyer, J. & Stone, D. (2015). The effect of dietary soybean meal and soy protein concentrate on the intestinal mucus layer and development of subacute enteritis in Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) at suboptimal water temperature. Aquaculture Nutrition, 21:300-310. doi: 10.1111/anu.12160
  • Bowyer, J., Qin, J., Smullen, R., Adams, L., Thomson, M. & Stone, D. (2013). The use of a soy product in juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) feeds at different water temperatures: 2. Soy protein concentrate. Aquaculture, 410-411:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.06.001
  • Buentello, A., Jirsa, D., Barrows, F.T. & Drawbridge, M. (2015). Minimizing fish meal use in juvenile California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi, diets using non-GM soybeans selectively bred for aquafeeds. Aquaculture, 435:403-411. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.10.027
  • Cheng, Z.J., Hardy, R.W. & Usry, J.L. (2003). Effects of lysine supplementation in plant protein-based diets on the performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients. Aquaculture, 215(1-4):255-265. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00166-7
  • Deng, J., Mai, K., Ai, Q., Zhang, W., Wang, X., Xu, W. & Liufu, Z. (2006). Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate on feed intake and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture, 258:503-513. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.04.004
  • Emre, Y., Kurtoğlu, A., Emre, N., Güroy, B. & Güroy, D. 2016. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and haematological parameters of juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius. Aquaculture Research. doi: 10.1111/are.12677
  • Engin, K. & Carter, C.G. (2001). Ammonia and urea excretion rates of juvenile Australian short-finned eel (Anguilla australis australis) as influenced by dietary protein level. Aquaculture, 194:123-136. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00506-8
  • Engin, K. & Carter, C.G. (2005). Fish meal replacement by plant and animal by-products in diets for the Australian short-finned eel, Anguilla australis australis (Richardson). Aquaculture Research, 36:445-454. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01224.x
  • FAO. (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <http://www.fao.org/statistics> (25.04.2016).
  • Grey, M., Forster, I., Dominy, W., Ako, H. & Giesen, A.F. (2009). Validation of a feeding stimulant bioassay using fish hydrolysates for the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 40(4):547-555. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2009.00264.x
  • Güroy, B., Mantoğlu, S., Merrifield, D.L. & Guroy, D. (2014). Effects of dietary Nutrafito Plus on growth, haemotological parameters and total ammonia-nitrogen excretion of juvenile striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Aquaculture Research, 47(6):1770-1777. doi: 10.1111/are.12634
  • Güroy, D., Güroy, B., Merrifield, D.L., Tekinay, A.A., Davies, S.J. & Şahin, İ. (2012). Effects of fish oil and partial fish meal substitution with oilseed oils and meals on growth performance, nutrient utilization and health of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture International, 20(3):481-497. doi: 10.1007/s10499-011-9479-z
  • Güroy, D., Şahin, İ., Güroy, B., Merrifield, D.L., Bulut, M. & Tekinay, A.A. (2013). Replacement of fishmeal with rice protein concentrate in practical diets for European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reared at winter temperatures. Aquaculture Research, 44(3):462-471. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.03053.x
  • Hansen, A.-C., Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, Ø., Koppe, W. & Hemre, G.-I. (2007). Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) I - Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture, 272(1-4):599-611. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.08.034
  • Kader, M., Koshio, S., Ishikawa, M., Yokoyama, S. & Bulbul, M. (2010). Supplemental effects of some crude ingredients in improving nutritive values of low fishmeal diets for red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture, 308:136-144. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.07.037
  • Kaushik, S.J., Covès, D., Dutto, G. & Blanc, D. (2004). Almost total replacement of fishmeal by plant protein sources in the diet of a marine teleost, the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 230:391-404. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00422-8
  • Kissinger, K., García-Ortega, A. & Trushenski, J.T. (2016). Partial fish meal replacement by soy protein concentrate, squid and algal meals in low fish-oil diets containing Schizochytrium limacinum for longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana. Aquaculture, 452:37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.10.022
  • Penn, M.H., Bendiksen, E.Å., Campbell, P. & Krogdahl, Å. (2011). High level of dietary pea protein concentrate induces enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 310:267-273. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.10.040
  • Phumee, P., Wei, W.Y., Ramachandran, S. & Hashim, R. (2011). Evaluation of soybean meal in the formulated diets for juvenile Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878). Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2):214-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00729.x
  • Robaina, L., Izquierdo, M.S., Moyamo, F.J., Socorro, J., Vergara, J.M., Montero, D. & Fernandez-Palacios, H. (1995). Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): Nutritional and histological implication. Aquaculture, 130:219-233. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)00225-D
  • Salze G., McLean, E., Battle, P.R., Schwarz, M.H. & Craig, S.R. (2010). Use of soy protein concentrate and novel ingredients in the total elimination of fish meal and fish oil in diets for juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture, 298:294-299. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.11.003
  • Sánchez-Lozano, N.B., Martínez-Llorens, S., Tomás-Vidal, A. & Cerdá, M.J. (2009). Effect of high-level fish meal replacement by pea and rice concentrate protein on growth, nutrient utilization and fillet quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, L.). Aquaculture, 298:83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.09.028
  • Sánchez-Lozano, N.B., Martínez-Llorens, S., Tomás-Vidal, A. & Jover Cerdá, M. (2011). Amino acid retention of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fed with pea protein concentrate. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2):604-614. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00803.x
  • Smith, D.M., Tabrett, S.J., Glencross, B.D., Irvin, S.J. & Barclay, M.C. (2007). Digestibility of lupin kernel meals in feeds for the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 264:353-362. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.002
  • Storebakken, T., Shearer, K.D. & Roem, A.J. (2000). Growth, uptake and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus, and absorption of other minerals in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fed diets with fish meal and soy protein concentrate as the main sources of protein. Aquaculture Nutrition, 6:103-108. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2095.2000.00135.x
  • Takagi, S., Shimeno, S., Hosokawa, H. & Ukawa, M. (2001). Effect of lysine and methionine supplementation to a soy protein concentrate diet for red sea bream Pagrus major. Fisheries Science, 67(6):1088-1096. doi: 10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00365.x
  • Tantikitti, C., Sangpong, W. & Chiavareesajja, S. (2005). Effects of defatted soybean protein levels on growth performance and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Aquaculture, 248:41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.04.027
  • TurkStat. (2016). Turkish Statistical Institute. <http://www.turkstat.gov.tr> (25.04.2016).
  • Vallés, R. & Estévez, A. (2013). Light conditions for larval rearing of meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Aquaculture, 376-379:15-19. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.11.011
  • Welch, A., Hoenig, R., Stieglitz, J., Benetti, D., Tacon, A., Sims, N. & O'Hanlon, B. (2010). From fishing to the sustainable farming of carnivorous marine finfish. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18(3):235-247. doi: 10.1080/10641262.2010.504865
  • Yang, Y.H., Wang, Y.Y., Lu, Y. & Li, Q.Z. (2011). Effect of replacing fish meal with soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture International, 19:405-419. doi: 10.1007/s10499-010-9359-y

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen
Yayınlanma Tarihi Mart 2017
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Onur Karadal Bu kişi benim
YALOVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Serhan MANTOĞLU Bu kişi benim
YALOVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Derya GÜROY
YALOVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Şubat 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 10 Mayıs 2016
Kabul Tarihi 8 Kasım 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 34, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Karadal, O. , Mantoğlu, S. & Güroy, D. (2017). Bezelye protein konsantresinin granyöz (Argyrosomus regius) balıklarında büyüme performansı, biyolojik parametreler, vücut kompozisyonu ve amonyak boşaltımı üzerine etkileri . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 34 (1) , 17-23 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.1.03