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Yemdeki balık yağının bitkisel yağlarla tamamen değiştirilmesinin optimum ve yüksek su sıcaklığında beslenen gökkuşağı alabalığının (Oncorhynchus mykiss) büyüme performansı, besin kalitesi ve yağ asidi profili üzerine etkileri

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 2, 237 - 246, 15.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.38.2.14

Abstract



Bu çalışmada, balık yağının farklı bitkisel yağlarla toplam ikamesinin, optimum ve yüksek sıcaklık koşullarında gökkuşağı alabalığının (Oncorhynchus mykiss) büyüme performansı, beslenme kalitesi ve yağ asidi profilleri üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Ortalama 11.27 ± 0.01 g ağırlıktaki gökkuşağı alabalığı yavruları için %100 balık yağı ve bitkisel yağlardan oluşan beş izo-nitrojenli ve izo-lipidik diyet hazırlanmıştır. Balıklar optimum sıcaklıkta (17.74±0.01°C) 9 hafta deneysel diyetlerle beslendikten sonra, tüm gruplara optimum üstü sıcaklık koşullarında (19.28±0.11°C) 4 hafta boyunca sadece balık yağı içeren bir FO (kontrol) diyeti verilmiştir. Her iki besleme denemesinde de deneysel balıklar günde iki kez elle doyuncaya kadar beslenmiştir. Sonuçlar, optimum sıcaklıkta FO bazlı diyetle beslenen gruplara kıyasla, VO bazlı diyetlerle beslenen gruplarda büyüme performansı ve yemleme veriminin önemli ölçüde daha iyi (p <0.05) olduğunu göstermiştir. Yaşama oranı, 9 hafta sonunda CANO, SFO, CO PNO gruplarında %100 ve FO (kontrol) grubunda % 94.12 ± 3.39 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Optimum sıcaklıkta beslenen balıkların büyümesi, yem tüketimi ve hayatta kalması önemli ölçüde farklılık göstermiştir (p <0.05). Özellikle bitkisel yağ bazlı diyetlerle optimum sıcaklıkta beslenen ve daha sonra sadece balık yağı ile beslenen grupların hayatta kalma oranı %100 kalırken, kontrol grubunda bu oran %54.17±1.39'a gerilemiştir. VO bazlı diyetlerle beslenen balıkların eikosapentaenoik asit (EPA, 20:5n-3), dokosaheksaenoik asit (DHA, 22:6n-3) ve n-3 PUFA düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tüm gruplara optimum sıcaklıklarda 4 hafta boyunca sadece FO diyeti verildiğinde EPA, DHA ve n-3 PUFA oranları artmıştır. Ayrıca optimum üst sıcaklık denemesinin ardından balık etinin besin kalitesi endekslerinde de artışlar tespit edilmiştir.




References

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Effects of total replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils on growth performance, nutritional quality and fatty acid profiles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at optimum -and high temperature conditions

Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 2, 237 - 246, 15.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.38.2.14

Abstract



The present study investigated the effects of total replacement of dietary fish oil by different vegetable oils on growth performance, nutritional quality and fatty acid profiles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at optimum -and high temperature conditions. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets including 100% fish oil and vegetable oils were prepared for rainbow trout fingerlings with an average weight of 11.27±0.01 g. After the fish were fed experimental diets for 9 weeks at the optimum temperature (17.74 ± 0.01 ° C), all groups were fed an FO diet containing only fish oil for 4-weeks at the upper optimum temperature conditions (19.28 ± 0.11°C). In both feeding trials, experimental fish were hand-fed ad libitium twice a day. Results showed that growth performance and feeding efficiency were significantly better (p<0.05) in groups fed by VO-based diets compared to groups fed by FO based diet at optimum temperature. Survival was 100% in CANO, SFO, CO PNO groups and 94.12 ± 3.39% in FO (control) group at the end of the 9 weeks. Growth, feed consumption and survival of fish fed the upper-optimum temperature were significantly differed (p<0.05). In particular, while the survival rate of the groups fed with vegetable oil-based diets at optimum temperature and then fed only fish oil remained 100%, this rate decreased to 54.17 ± 1.39% in the control group. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and n-3 PUFA of fish fed by VO based diets were low. When all groups were fed only FO diet for 4 weeks at upper-optimum temperatures, EPA, DHA and n-3 PUFA ratios increased. In addition, after the upper-optimum temperature trial, increases in the nutritional quality indices of fish meat were also detected.


References

  • Altıner, A., Atalay, H. & Bilal, T. (2017). Bir antioksidan olarak E vitamini. Balıkesir Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(3):149-157. DOI: 10.5505/bsbd.2017.47450
  • AOAC, (1995). Animal Feed. W. Horwitz (Ed.). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 13th Edition 7:125. USA
  • Babalola, T.O. & Apata, D.F. (2012). Effects of dietary lipid source on growth, digestibility and tissue fatty acid composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 113(1): 1–11
  • Bayaz, M. (2014). Esansiyel yağlar: Antimikrobiyal, antioksidan ve antimutajenik aktiviteleri. Akademik Gıda, 12(3): 45-53
  • Bell, J.G., McEvoy, J., Tocher, D.R., McGhee, F., Campbell, P.J. & Sargent, J.R. (2001). Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid compositions and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr., 131: 1535-1543. DOI: 10.1093/jn/131.5.1535.
  • Bell, J.G., Tocher, D.R., Henderson, R.J., Dick, J.R. & Cramptom, V.O. (2003). Altered fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet. J Nutr., 133: 2793–2801. DOI: 10.1093/jn/133.9.2793.
  • Bell, J.G., Henderson, R.J., Tocher, D.R. & Sargent, J.R. (2004). Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet. Lipids, 39(3): 223–232. DOI: 10.1007/s11745-004-1223-5.
  • Caballero, M.J., Obach, A., Roselund, G., Montero, D., Gisvold, M. & Izquierdo, M.S. (2002). Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 214: 253–271. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00852-3.
  • Codabaccus, M.B., Ng, W.-K., Nichols, P.D. & Carter, C.G. (2013). Restoration of EPA and DHA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a finishing fish oil diet at two different water temperatures. Food Chemistry, 141:236-244. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2013.02.032.
  • Dagtekin, B.B.G., Misir, G.B., Kutlu, S. & Basturk, O., (2017). Comparison of biochemical, fatty acids and lipid quality indexes of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) caught from Lake Çıldır on different seasons. Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 1(1): 2-14.
  • Fonseca-Madrigal, J., Karalazos, V., Campbell, P.J., Bell, J.G. & Tocher, D.R. (2005). Influence of dietary palm oil on growth, tissue fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism in liver and intestine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac. Nutr., 11: 241-250. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2005.00346.x
  • Gabor, E.F., Ichim, O. & Şuteu, M. (2012). Phyto-additives in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nutrition. Biharean Biologist, 6(2): 134-139
  • Fountoulaki, E., Vasilaki, A., Hurtado, R., Grigorakis, K., Karacostas, I., Nengas, I., Rigos, G., Kotzamanis, Y., Venou, B. & Alexis, M.N. (2009). Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile: Recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture, 289: 317-326. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.023.
  • Hanson, S.W.F. & Olley, J. (1963). Application of the Bligh and Dyer method of lipid extraction to tissue homogenates. Biochem J., 89: 101-102 Izquierdo, M.S., Montero, D., Robaina, L., Caballero, M.J., Rosenlund, G. & Ginés, R. (2005). Alterations in fillet fatty acid profile and flesh quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed vegetable oils for a long term period. Recovery of fatty acid profiles by fish oil feeding. Aquaculture, 250: 431–444. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.12.001.
  • İşler, N. (2018). Kolza (Kanola) tarımı. M.K.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü. http://www.mku.edu.tr/files/898-0e9fe1a8-1d54-4c38-8ac4-cdbdccae03ad.pdf
  • Kocatepe, D., Erdem, M.E., Keskin, I., Köstekli, B. & Kaya Y. (2019). Differences on lipid quality index and amino acid profiles of European Anchovy caught from different area in Turkey. Ukrainian Journal of Food Science, 7(1): 6-15. DOI: 10.24263/2310-1008-2019-7-13.
  • McDowell, L.R., Williams, S.N., Hidiroglou, N., Njeru, C.A., Hill, G.M., Ochoa, L. & Wilkinson, N.S. (1996). Vitamin E supplementation for the ruminant. Animal Feed Science Technology, 60: 273-296. DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(96)00982-0.
  • Menoyo, D., Izquierdo, M.S., Robaina, L., Cinés, R., Lopez-Bote, C.J. & Bautista, J.M. (2004). Adaptation of lipid metabolism, tissue composition and flesh quality in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) to the replacement of dietary fish oil by linseed and soyabean oils. Br. J. Nutr., 92: 41–52. DOI: 10.1079/BJN20041165.
  • Montero, D., Tort, L., Robaina, L.,Vergara, J.M. & Izquierdo, M.S. (2001). Low vitamin E in diet reduces stress resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 11: 473-490. DOI: 10.1006/fsim.2000.0324.
  • Montero, D., Robaina, L., Caballero, M.J., Gines, R. & Izquierdo, M.S. (2005). Growth, feed utilization and flesh quality of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed diets containing vegetable oils: a time course study on the effect of a re-feeding period with 100% fish oil diet. Aquaculture, 248: 121–134. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.003.
  • Mourente, G. & Bell, J.G. (2006). Partial replacement of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed and palm oils) in diets for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) over a long term growth study: effects on muscle and liver fatty acid composition and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 145:389-399. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.08.012.
  • Newman, S.G. (2000). Management and prevention of stress in aquaculture with a focus on farmed shrimp. Fourth Latin American Aquaculture Congress and Seafood Trade Show, Oct 25-28, USA
  • Ng, W-K., Chong, C-Y., Wang, Y. & Romano, N. (2013). Effects of dietary fish and vegetable oils on the growth, tissue fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and vitamin E content of red hybrid tilapia and efficacy of using fish oil finishing diets. Aquaculture, 372-375: 97-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.10.030.
  • Ouraji H., Shabanpur B., Abediankenari A., Shabani A., Nezami A., Sudagar M. & Faghani S. (2009). Total lipid. fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of Indian White shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) fed diets containing different lipid sources. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(6): 993–997. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3545.
  • Regost, C., Arzel, J., Robin, J., Roselund, G. & Kaushik, S.J. (2003). Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or oil with return to fish oil in turbot (Psetta maxima) 1. Growth performance, flesh fatty acid profile, and lipid metabolism. Aquaculture, 217: 465–482. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00259-4.
  • Sahan, A., Eroldogan, O.T., Kurutas, E.B., Yilmaz, H.A. & Demirkale, I. (2016). The effects of cottonseed oil as alternative to fish oil on oxidative stress biomarkers and some hematological parameters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25(7): 2639-2645
  • Senso L., Suarrez M.D., Ruiz-Cara T. & Garcira-Gallego M. (2007). On the possible effects of harvesting season and chilled storage on the fatty acid profile of the fillet of farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), Food Chemistry, 101: 298-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.036.
  • Sonu, B. (2018). Fish-Oil Finishing Diets: A strategy to recover long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in Fish previously fed alternative dietary lipids. Int. J. of Life Sciences, 6(2): 466-472
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science, Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Seval DERNEKBAŞI (Primary Author)
SİNOP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5735-2486
Türkiye


Ayşe PARLAK AKYÜZ
Kuzey Su Ürünleri San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. Bafra, Samsun
Türkiye


İsmihan KARAYÜCEL
SİNOP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Thanks This study was conducted at the Research and Application Center of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Faculty of Sinop University, Turkey. We extend our gratefulness to Osman PARLAK, the Owner of the Kuzey Su Urunleri fish farm, for providing us the fish.
Publication Date June 15, 2021
Application Date November 17, 2020
Acceptance Date March 18, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 38, Issue 2

Cite

APA Dernekbaşı, S. , Parlak Akyüz, A. & Karayücel, İ. (2021). Effects of total replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils on growth performance, nutritional quality and fatty acid profiles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at optimum -and high temperature conditions . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 38 (2) , 237-246 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.38.2.14