Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Distribution of Aquatic Diptera larvae of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) and ecological characteristics

Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4, 397 - 407, 15.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.37.4.11

Abstract



Yeşilırmak River is one of the most important running waters of Turkey, but the water quality of this river has been affected by agricultural and domestic pollution. Dams and hydroelectric power plants also threaten the habitat quality and biodiversity of the river. This research contains investigation of Diptera fauna in Yeşilırmak River and tributaries, determination ecological characteristics of the collecting sites according to System A and System B Classification of Water Framework Directive (WFD), assessment of water quality of the studied sites by measuring the physicochemical variables (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P) and using some metrics (abundance, number of taxa, Simpson Diversity Index, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, Margalef Diversity Index, Evenness). Thirty-three (33) sites were sampled from Yeşilırmak River and its tributaries in June 2010. Diptera individuals were detected in 20 of them. Two thousand four hundred forty-five (2445) individuals belonging to 12 families and 16 taxa were identified in 20 sampling sites. The water quality classes of the studied sites were Class III (moderate pollution) and Class IV (heavily pollution) according to values of physicochemical variables.


References

  • Adler, P.H. & Courtney, G.W. (2019). Ecological and societal services of aquatic Diptera. Insects, 10(3), 70. DOI:10.3390/insects10030070
  • Adriaenssens, V., Simons, F., Nguyen, L.T.H., Goddeeris, B., Goethals, P.L.M. & De Pauw, N. (2004). Potential of bio-indication of chironomid communities for assessment of running water quality in Flanders (Belgium). Belgian Journal of Zoology, 134(1), 31–40.
  • Akay, E. & Dalkıran, N. (2019). Assessing biological water quality of Yalakdere stream (Yalova, Turkey) with benthic macroinvertebrate-based metrics. Biologia, 1–17. DOI:10.2478/s11756-019-00387-9
  • Anonymous. (2015). Yerüstü Su Kalitesi Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, pp. 1–30.
  • Anonymous. (2016). Yerüstü Su Kalitesi Yönetmeliğinde Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, pp. 134–149.
  • AQEM Consortium. (2002). Manual for the application of the AQEM system. A comprehensive method to assess European streams using benthic macroinvertebrates, developed for the purpose of the Water Framework Directive.
  • AQEM Consortium. (2006). The AQEM river assessment program ASTERICS: A calculation program designed to assess the Ecological Quality of stream types in European countries based on macroinvertebrate taxa lists.
  • Armitage, P.D., Pinder, L.C. & Cranston, P.S. (1995). The Chironomidae : Biology and ecology of non-biting midges. Springer Netherlands. DOI:10.1007/978-94-011-0715-0
  • Arslan, N., Kökçü, C.A. & Mercan, D. (2016). Aquatic Oligochaetes Biodiversity in Turkey: Example of Lake Sapanca with Application of the Biotic Indices. International Journal of Advances in Chemical Enginering and Biological Sciences, 3(1), 27–31. DOI:10.15242/IJACEBS.AE0216131
  • Arslan, N., Salur, A., Kalyoncu, H., Mercan, D., Barışık, B. & Odabaşı, D.A. (2016). The use of BMWP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to macroinvertebrates in Küçük Menderes River (Turkey), 71(1), 49–57. DOI:10.1515/biolog-2016-0005
  • Başören, Ö. & Kazancı, N. (2016). Water quality assessment of Fırtına Stream (Rize, Turkey) by using various macroinvertebrate based metrics and physicochemical variables. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 1–16.
  • Bolat, H.A., Kazanci, N., Basoren, O. & Türkmen, G. (2016). Aquatic Diptera (Insecta) fauna of streams in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey and their relationship with water quality. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 47–72.
  • Bouchard, R.W.J. (2004). Diptera (Aquatic & Semiaquatic True Flies). In Guide to aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Upper Midwest (pp. 159–183). Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota.
  • Bulankova, E. (2003). Communities of diptera (excl. Chironomidae and Simuliidae) of the Gidra River basin. Acta Zoologica, 45, 85–94.
  • Buss, D.F., Carlisle, D.M., Chon, T.S., Culp, J., Harding, J.S., Keizer-Vlek, H.E., … Hughes, R.M. (2015). Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe: a comparison of large-scale programs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(4132), 1–21. DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-4132-8
  • Car, M., Mohrig, W., Moog, O., Oosterbroek, P., Reusch, H., Wagner, R. & Zwick, P. (1995). Diptera (except Chironomidae) (authors depending on family). In O. Moog (Ed.), Fauna Aquatica Austriaca (1995th, 2002nd ed., p. 98). Wien: Wasserwirtschaftskataster, Bundesministerium für Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft.
  • Council of European Communities. (2000). Water Framework Directive (WFD) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities (Vol. L327).
  • Courtney, G.W. & Merritt, R.W. (2008). Aquatic Diptera. In R. W. Merritt, K. . Cummins, & M. B. Berg (Eds.), An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America (pp. 687–722). Dubuque, Iowa, US: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
  • Courtney, G.W., Pape, T., Skevington, J.H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017). Biodiversity of Diptera. In Insect Biodiversity (pp. 229–278). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. DOI:10.1002/9781118945568.ch9
  • CSN 75 7716. (1998). Water quality, biological analysis, determination of saprobic index. Prague: Czech Technical State Standard, Czech Standards Institute. Dash, M. C. (2003). Fundamental of Ecology. Tata Mcgraw Hill Publication.
  • De Oliveira, R.B.D.S., Mugnai, R., Pereira, P.D.S., De Souza, N.F. & Baptista, D.F. (2019). A predictive multimetric index based on macroinvetebrates for Atlantic Forest wadeable streams assessment. Biota Neotropica, 19(2), e20180541. DOI:10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2018-0541
  • Domagalski, J.L. & Johnson, H. (2012). Phosphorus and Groundwater : Establishing Links Between Agricultural Use and Transport to Streams. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3004.
  • Dubrovsky, N.M., Burow, K.R., Clark, G.M., Gronberg, J.M., Hamilton, P.A., Hitt, K.J., … Wilber, W.G. (2010). The quality of our Nation’s waters - Nutrients in the Nation’ s Streams and Groundwater, 1992 - 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1350.
  • Duran, M. & Akyıldız, G.K. (2011). Evaluating Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna and Water Quality of Suleymanli Lake (Buldan-Denizli) in Turkey. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 63(2), 169–178.
  • Ekingen, P. & Kazancı, N. (2012). Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the Aksu Stream (Giresun, Turkey) and habitat quality assessment based on European Union Water Framework Directive criteria. Review of Hydrobiology, 5(1), 35–55.
  • Epler, J.H. (2001). Identification manual for the larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina.
  • Feld, C.K., Kiel, E. & Lautenschläger, M. (2002). The indication of morphological degradation of streams and rivers using Simuliidae. Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 32, 273–288. DOI:10.1016/S0075-9511(02)80033-0
  • Ferrington, L.C. (2008). Global diversity of non-biting midges (Chironomidae; Insecta-Diptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595, 447–455. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_45
  • Frutiger, A. & Niederhauser, D. (2000). Effects of water abstraction on net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae). Internationale Vereinigung Für Theoretische Und Angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 27(2), 943–946. DOI:10.1080/03680770.1998.11901379
  • Fuhrer, G.J., Gilliom, R.J., Hamilton, P.A., Morace, J.L., Nowell, L.H., Rinella, J.F., … Wentz, D.A. (1999). The Quality of Our Nation’s Water: Nutrients and Pesticides. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225.
  • Gelhaus, J.K. (1986). Larvae of the Crane fly genus Tipula in North America (Diptera: Tipulidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 53(3), 121–182.
  • Godfrey, P.J. (1978). Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution. Hydrobiologia, 57(2), 111–122. DOI:10.1007/BF00016454
  • Gültutan, Y. & Kazancı, N. (2009). A research on Chironomidae (Diptera) Fauna of Eastern Blacksea Region and water quality relationship. Review of Hydrobiology, 2(1), 57–80.
  • HACH. (2005). DR/890 Datalogging colorimeter handbook procedures manual.
  • Hatch, L.K., Reuter, J.E. & Goldman, C.R. (1999). Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream. Water Resources Research, 35(12), 3783–3791. DOI:10.1029/1999WR900256
  • Hilsenhoff, W.L. (2001). Diversity and Classification of Insects and Collembola. In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (pp. 661–731). Academic Press. DOI:10.1016/B978-012690647-9/50018-1
  • Holman, I.P., Whelan, M.J., Howden, N.J.K., Bellamy, P.H., Willby, N.J., Rivas-Casado, M. & McConvey, P. (2008). Phosphorus in groundwater—an overlooked contributor to eutrophication? Hydrological Processes Process, 22, 5121–5127. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7198
  • Ivković, M. & Ivanković, L. (2019). The genus Dixa (Diptera, Dixidae) in Croatian lotic habitats, with a checklist of species and relationships with the fauna of neighbouring countries. ZooKeys, 867, 45–54. DOI:10.3897/zookeys.867.36613
  • Johnson, R.K., Hering, D., Furse, M.T. & Verdonschot, P.F.M. (2006). Indicators of ecological change: Comparison of the early response of four organism groups to stress gradients. Hydrobiologia, 566(1), 139–152. DOI:10.1007/s10750-006-0100-9
  • Kazanci, N., Başören, Ö., Türkmen, G., Öz, B., Ekingen, P. & Bolat, H. A. (2013). Assessment of macroinvertebrate community structure and water quality of running waters in Camili (Artvin, Turkey); a part of Caucasus Biodiversity Hotspot , by using Water Framework Directive ( WFD ) methods. Review of Hydrobiology, 6(2), 91–102.
  • Kazanci, N., Ekingen, P., Türkmen, G., Ertunç, Ö., Dügel, M. & Gültutan, Y. (2010). Assessment of ecological quality of Aksu Stream (Giresun, Turkey) in Eastern Black Sea Region by using Water Framework Directive (WFD) methods based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 165–184.
  • Kazanci, N. & Ertunç, Ö. (2010). Use of Simuliidae (Insecta , Diptera) species as indicators of aquatic habitat quality of Yeşilırmak River Basin (Turkey). Review of Hydrobiology, 3(1), 27–36.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G. & Başören, Ö. (2015). Application of BMWP and using benthic macroinvertebrates to determine the water quality of a transboundary running water, Çoruh River (Turkey). Review of Hydrobiology, 8(2), 119–130.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ekingen, P. & Başören, O. (2017). Evaluation of Plecoptera (Insecta) community composition using multivariate technics in a biodiversity hotspot. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14, 1307–1316. DOI:10.1007/s13762-017-1245-y
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ekingen, P. & Başören, Ö. (2013). Preparation of a biotic index (Yeşilırmak-BMWP) for water quality monitoring of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) by using benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 6(1), 1–29.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ertunç, Ö., Ekingen, P., Öz, B. & Gültutan, Y. (2010). Assessment of ecological quality of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) by using macroinvertebrate-based methods in the content of Water Framework Directive. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 89–110.
  • Kazancı, N. & Ertunç, Ö. (2008). On the Simuliidae (Insecta, Diptera) Fauna of Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology, 1(1), 27–36.
  • Kocataş, A. (2006). Ekoloji ve Çevre Biyolojisi (9. Baskı). Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Kolcsár, L.P., Soos, A., Török, E., Graf, W., Rákosy, L. & Keresztes, L. (2017). New faunistic records of the genus Erioptera Meigen (Limoniidae, Diptera, Insecta) from Europe. Entomologica Romanica, 21, 23–44. DOI:10.24193/entomolrom.21.4
  • Kovac, D. & Rozkošný, R. (2005). Insecta: Diptera, Stratiomyidae. In C. M. Yule & H. S. Yong (Eds.), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region (pp. 798–804). Academy of Sciences Malaysia.
  • Lautenschläger, M. & Kiel, E. (2005). Assessing morphological degradation in running waters using Blackfly communities (Diptera, Simuliidae): Can habitat quality be predicted from land use? Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 35(4), 262–273. DOI:10.1016/j.limno.2005.04.003
  • Lechthaler, W., Moog, O. & Car, M. (2017). Diptera: Simuliidae. In O. Moog & H. Anne (Eds.), Fauna Aquatica Austriaca (Third edit, p. 11). Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Wien.
  • Luoto, T.P. (2011). Indicator value of midge larvae (Diptera: Nematocera) in shallow boreal lakes with a focus on habitat, water quality, and climate. Aquatic Insects, 33(4), 351–370. DOI:10.1080/01650424.2011.640333
  • Malmqvist, B., Zhang, Y. & Adler, P.H. (1999). Diversity, distribution and larval habitats of North Swedish blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Freshwater Biology, 42(2), 301–314. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2427.1999.444497.x
  • Margalef, R. (1958). Information theory in Ecology. General Systems, 3, 36–71.
  • Mason, C.F. (2002). Biology of freshwater pollution. Harlow, England ; New York : Prentice Hall.
  • Middlekauff, W.W. & Lane, R.S. (1980). Adult and immature Tabanidae (Diptera) of California. University of California Press.
  • Paine, G. H., And, J. R., Gaufin, A.R. & Taft, R.A. (1956). Aquatic Diptera as indicators of pollution in a Midwestern Stream. The Ohio Journal of Science, 56(5), 291–304.
  • Podeniene, V. & Gelhaus, J. K. (2015). Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae). Zootaxa, 4021(1), 93–118. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4021.1.4
  • Ravera, O. (2001). A comparison between diversity, similarity and biotic indices applied to the macroinvertebrate community of a small stream: the Ravella River (Como Province, Northern Italy). Aquatic Ecology, 35(2), 97–107. DOI:10.1023/A:1011433813309
  • Rekolainen, S. (1989). Effect of snow and soil frost melting on the concentrations of suspended solids and phosphorus in two rural watersheds in Western Finland. Aquatic Sciences, 51(3).
  • Reusch, H. & Oosterbroek, P. (1997). Diptera Limoniidae and Pediciidae, short-palped Crane Flies. In A. Nilsson (Ed.), Aquatic insects of North Europe. A taxonomic handbook (Vol. 2, pp. 105–132). Stenstrup: Apollo Books.
  • Rosenberg, D.M. & Resh, V.H. (1993). Introduction to Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg and Resh (Ed.), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (pp. 1–9). New York : Chapman & Hall.
  • Schmedtje, U. & Colling, M. (1996). Ökologische Typisierung der aquatischen Makrofauna. Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft.
  • Šporka, F. (2003). Vodne bezstavovce (makroevertebrata) Slovenska, supis druhov a autekologicke charakteristiky. Slovak Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Checklist and Catalogue of Autecological Notes. Bratislava.
  • Tachet, H., Richoux, P., Bournaud, M., Usseglio-Polatera, P., & Impr. Laballery). (2010). Invertébrés d’eau douce systématique, biologie, écologie. CNRS Editions.
  • Thirion, C. (2016). The determination of flow and habitat requirements for selected riverine macroinvertebrates. North-West University.
  • Türkmen, G.- & Kazancı, N. (2015). Determining the Reference Ephemeroptera Communities in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Turkey. Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 17(1), 177–194.
  • Türkmen, G. & Kazancı, N. (2016). Habitat quality assessment of streams in Altindere Valley (Trabzon, Turkey) by using physico-chemical variables and various biotic indices based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 17–36.
  • Ujvárosi, L. & Bálint, M. (2012). Discovery of the second European Amalopis species: An integrative survey of the widespread Pedicia (Amalopis) occulta (Meigen, 1830) (Insecta, Diptera, Pediciidae). Zootaxa, 3189, 1–28. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3189.1.1
  • Ujvárosi, L., Kolcsár, L. P., Bálint, M. & Ciprian, M. (2010). Pediciidae larva (Insecta, Diptera) in the Carpathian basin: preliminary results and further perspectives. Acta Biologica Debrecina. Supplementum Oecologica Hungarica., 21, 233–246.
  • Wagner, R., Barták, M., Borkent, A., Courtney, G., Goddeeris, B., Haenni, J.-P., … Zwick, P. (2008). Global diversity of dipteran families (Insecta Diptera) in freshwater (excluding Simulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tipulidae and Tabanidae). In Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (pp. 489–518). Springer Netherlands. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_49
  • Wotton, Roger S. & Malmqvist, B. (2001). Feces in Aquatic Ecosystems. BioScience, 51, 537–544. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0537:FIAE]2.0.CO;2
  • Zeybek, M. (2017). Macroinvertebrate-based biotic indices for evaluating the water quality of Kargı Stream (Antalya, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology , 41, 476–486. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1602-10
  • Zeybek, M., Kalyoncu, H., Karakaş, B. & Özgül, S. (2014). The use of BMWP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to macroinvertebrates in Değirmendere Stream (Isparta, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 603–613. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1310-9
  • Zwick, P. (1977). Australian Blepariceridae (Diptera). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series, 25(46), 1. DOI:10.1071/ajzs046

Yeşilırmak Nehri’ndeki Sucul Diptera (Insecta) larvalarının dağılımı ve ekolojik özellikleri

Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4, 397 - 407, 15.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.37.4.11

Abstract



Yeşilırmak Nehri, Türkiye’nin en önemli nehirlerinden biridir. Ancak nehrin su kalitesi tarımsal ve evsel kirlilikten etkilenmektedir. Ayrıca, barajlar ve hidroelektrik santralleri de nehrin habitat kalitesini ve biyoçeşitliliğini tehdit etmektedir. Bu çalışmayla, Yeşilırmak Nehri ve kollarındaki Diptera komunitesi belirlenmiş, Su Çerçeve Direktifi (SÇD)’nin Sistem Ave B sınıflandırmasına göre çalışılan istasyonların ekolojileri tespit edilmiş, fizikokimyasal değişkenler (su sıcaklığı, pH, elektriksel iletkenlik, çözünmüş oksijen, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P) ve bazı metrikler (bolluk, taksa sayısı, Simpson Çeşitlilik İndeksi, Shannon-Wiener Çeşitlilik İndeksi, Margalef Çeşitlilik İndeksi) kullanılarak istasyonların su kaliteleri değerlendirilmiştir. Yeşilırmak Nehri ve kollarında, Haziran 2010 tarihinde otuz üç (33) istasyon örneklenmiş, bu istasyonlardan 20 tanesinde Diptera bireylerine rastlanmıştır. Bu 20 örnekleme istasyonundan Diptera takımına ait 16 taksa, 12 familya, 2445 birey tanımlanmıştır. İstasyonların su kaliteleri, fizikokimyasal değişkenlere göre III. Sınıf (orta kirli) ve IV. Sınıf (çok kirli) olarak belirlenmiştir. 


References

  • Adler, P.H. & Courtney, G.W. (2019). Ecological and societal services of aquatic Diptera. Insects, 10(3), 70. DOI:10.3390/insects10030070
  • Adriaenssens, V., Simons, F., Nguyen, L.T.H., Goddeeris, B., Goethals, P.L.M. & De Pauw, N. (2004). Potential of bio-indication of chironomid communities for assessment of running water quality in Flanders (Belgium). Belgian Journal of Zoology, 134(1), 31–40.
  • Akay, E. & Dalkıran, N. (2019). Assessing biological water quality of Yalakdere stream (Yalova, Turkey) with benthic macroinvertebrate-based metrics. Biologia, 1–17. DOI:10.2478/s11756-019-00387-9
  • Anonymous. (2015). Yerüstü Su Kalitesi Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, pp. 1–30.
  • Anonymous. (2016). Yerüstü Su Kalitesi Yönetmeliğinde Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, pp. 134–149.
  • AQEM Consortium. (2002). Manual for the application of the AQEM system. A comprehensive method to assess European streams using benthic macroinvertebrates, developed for the purpose of the Water Framework Directive.
  • AQEM Consortium. (2006). The AQEM river assessment program ASTERICS: A calculation program designed to assess the Ecological Quality of stream types in European countries based on macroinvertebrate taxa lists.
  • Armitage, P.D., Pinder, L.C. & Cranston, P.S. (1995). The Chironomidae : Biology and ecology of non-biting midges. Springer Netherlands. DOI:10.1007/978-94-011-0715-0
  • Arslan, N., Kökçü, C.A. & Mercan, D. (2016). Aquatic Oligochaetes Biodiversity in Turkey: Example of Lake Sapanca with Application of the Biotic Indices. International Journal of Advances in Chemical Enginering and Biological Sciences, 3(1), 27–31. DOI:10.15242/IJACEBS.AE0216131
  • Arslan, N., Salur, A., Kalyoncu, H., Mercan, D., Barışık, B. & Odabaşı, D.A. (2016). The use of BMWP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to macroinvertebrates in Küçük Menderes River (Turkey), 71(1), 49–57. DOI:10.1515/biolog-2016-0005
  • Başören, Ö. & Kazancı, N. (2016). Water quality assessment of Fırtına Stream (Rize, Turkey) by using various macroinvertebrate based metrics and physicochemical variables. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 1–16.
  • Bolat, H.A., Kazanci, N., Basoren, O. & Türkmen, G. (2016). Aquatic Diptera (Insecta) fauna of streams in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey and their relationship with water quality. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 47–72.
  • Bouchard, R.W.J. (2004). Diptera (Aquatic & Semiaquatic True Flies). In Guide to aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Upper Midwest (pp. 159–183). Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota.
  • Bulankova, E. (2003). Communities of diptera (excl. Chironomidae and Simuliidae) of the Gidra River basin. Acta Zoologica, 45, 85–94.
  • Buss, D.F., Carlisle, D.M., Chon, T.S., Culp, J., Harding, J.S., Keizer-Vlek, H.E., … Hughes, R.M. (2015). Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe: a comparison of large-scale programs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(4132), 1–21. DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-4132-8
  • Car, M., Mohrig, W., Moog, O., Oosterbroek, P., Reusch, H., Wagner, R. & Zwick, P. (1995). Diptera (except Chironomidae) (authors depending on family). In O. Moog (Ed.), Fauna Aquatica Austriaca (1995th, 2002nd ed., p. 98). Wien: Wasserwirtschaftskataster, Bundesministerium für Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft.
  • Council of European Communities. (2000). Water Framework Directive (WFD) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities (Vol. L327).
  • Courtney, G.W. & Merritt, R.W. (2008). Aquatic Diptera. In R. W. Merritt, K. . Cummins, & M. B. Berg (Eds.), An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America (pp. 687–722). Dubuque, Iowa, US: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
  • Courtney, G.W., Pape, T., Skevington, J.H. & Sinclair, B.J. (2017). Biodiversity of Diptera. In Insect Biodiversity (pp. 229–278). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. DOI:10.1002/9781118945568.ch9
  • CSN 75 7716. (1998). Water quality, biological analysis, determination of saprobic index. Prague: Czech Technical State Standard, Czech Standards Institute. Dash, M. C. (2003). Fundamental of Ecology. Tata Mcgraw Hill Publication.
  • De Oliveira, R.B.D.S., Mugnai, R., Pereira, P.D.S., De Souza, N.F. & Baptista, D.F. (2019). A predictive multimetric index based on macroinvetebrates for Atlantic Forest wadeable streams assessment. Biota Neotropica, 19(2), e20180541. DOI:10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2018-0541
  • Domagalski, J.L. & Johnson, H. (2012). Phosphorus and Groundwater : Establishing Links Between Agricultural Use and Transport to Streams. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3004.
  • Dubrovsky, N.M., Burow, K.R., Clark, G.M., Gronberg, J.M., Hamilton, P.A., Hitt, K.J., … Wilber, W.G. (2010). The quality of our Nation’s waters - Nutrients in the Nation’ s Streams and Groundwater, 1992 - 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1350.
  • Duran, M. & Akyıldız, G.K. (2011). Evaluating Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna and Water Quality of Suleymanli Lake (Buldan-Denizli) in Turkey. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 63(2), 169–178.
  • Ekingen, P. & Kazancı, N. (2012). Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the Aksu Stream (Giresun, Turkey) and habitat quality assessment based on European Union Water Framework Directive criteria. Review of Hydrobiology, 5(1), 35–55.
  • Epler, J.H. (2001). Identification manual for the larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina.
  • Feld, C.K., Kiel, E. & Lautenschläger, M. (2002). The indication of morphological degradation of streams and rivers using Simuliidae. Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 32, 273–288. DOI:10.1016/S0075-9511(02)80033-0
  • Ferrington, L.C. (2008). Global diversity of non-biting midges (Chironomidae; Insecta-Diptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595, 447–455. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_45
  • Frutiger, A. & Niederhauser, D. (2000). Effects of water abstraction on net-winged midges (Diptera: Blephariceridae). Internationale Vereinigung Für Theoretische Und Angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 27(2), 943–946. DOI:10.1080/03680770.1998.11901379
  • Fuhrer, G.J., Gilliom, R.J., Hamilton, P.A., Morace, J.L., Nowell, L.H., Rinella, J.F., … Wentz, D.A. (1999). The Quality of Our Nation’s Water: Nutrients and Pesticides. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225.
  • Gelhaus, J.K. (1986). Larvae of the Crane fly genus Tipula in North America (Diptera: Tipulidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 53(3), 121–182.
  • Godfrey, P.J. (1978). Diversity as a measure of benthic macroinvertebrate community response to water pollution. Hydrobiologia, 57(2), 111–122. DOI:10.1007/BF00016454
  • Gültutan, Y. & Kazancı, N. (2009). A research on Chironomidae (Diptera) Fauna of Eastern Blacksea Region and water quality relationship. Review of Hydrobiology, 2(1), 57–80.
  • HACH. (2005). DR/890 Datalogging colorimeter handbook procedures manual.
  • Hatch, L.K., Reuter, J.E. & Goldman, C.R. (1999). Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream. Water Resources Research, 35(12), 3783–3791. DOI:10.1029/1999WR900256
  • Hilsenhoff, W.L. (2001). Diversity and Classification of Insects and Collembola. In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (pp. 661–731). Academic Press. DOI:10.1016/B978-012690647-9/50018-1
  • Holman, I.P., Whelan, M.J., Howden, N.J.K., Bellamy, P.H., Willby, N.J., Rivas-Casado, M. & McConvey, P. (2008). Phosphorus in groundwater—an overlooked contributor to eutrophication? Hydrological Processes Process, 22, 5121–5127. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7198
  • Ivković, M. & Ivanković, L. (2019). The genus Dixa (Diptera, Dixidae) in Croatian lotic habitats, with a checklist of species and relationships with the fauna of neighbouring countries. ZooKeys, 867, 45–54. DOI:10.3897/zookeys.867.36613
  • Johnson, R.K., Hering, D., Furse, M.T. & Verdonschot, P.F.M. (2006). Indicators of ecological change: Comparison of the early response of four organism groups to stress gradients. Hydrobiologia, 566(1), 139–152. DOI:10.1007/s10750-006-0100-9
  • Kazanci, N., Başören, Ö., Türkmen, G., Öz, B., Ekingen, P. & Bolat, H. A. (2013). Assessment of macroinvertebrate community structure and water quality of running waters in Camili (Artvin, Turkey); a part of Caucasus Biodiversity Hotspot , by using Water Framework Directive ( WFD ) methods. Review of Hydrobiology, 6(2), 91–102.
  • Kazanci, N., Ekingen, P., Türkmen, G., Ertunç, Ö., Dügel, M. & Gültutan, Y. (2010). Assessment of ecological quality of Aksu Stream (Giresun, Turkey) in Eastern Black Sea Region by using Water Framework Directive (WFD) methods based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 165–184.
  • Kazanci, N. & Ertunç, Ö. (2010). Use of Simuliidae (Insecta , Diptera) species as indicators of aquatic habitat quality of Yeşilırmak River Basin (Turkey). Review of Hydrobiology, 3(1), 27–36.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G. & Başören, Ö. (2015). Application of BMWP and using benthic macroinvertebrates to determine the water quality of a transboundary running water, Çoruh River (Turkey). Review of Hydrobiology, 8(2), 119–130.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ekingen, P. & Başören, O. (2017). Evaluation of Plecoptera (Insecta) community composition using multivariate technics in a biodiversity hotspot. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14, 1307–1316. DOI:10.1007/s13762-017-1245-y
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ekingen, P. & Başören, Ö. (2013). Preparation of a biotic index (Yeşilırmak-BMWP) for water quality monitoring of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) by using benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 6(1), 1–29.
  • Kazanci, N., Türkmen, G., Ertunç, Ö., Ekingen, P., Öz, B. & Gültutan, Y. (2010). Assessment of ecological quality of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) by using macroinvertebrate-based methods in the content of Water Framework Directive. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 89–110.
  • Kazancı, N. & Ertunç, Ö. (2008). On the Simuliidae (Insecta, Diptera) Fauna of Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology, 1(1), 27–36.
  • Kocataş, A. (2006). Ekoloji ve Çevre Biyolojisi (9. Baskı). Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Kolcsár, L.P., Soos, A., Török, E., Graf, W., Rákosy, L. & Keresztes, L. (2017). New faunistic records of the genus Erioptera Meigen (Limoniidae, Diptera, Insecta) from Europe. Entomologica Romanica, 21, 23–44. DOI:10.24193/entomolrom.21.4
  • Kovac, D. & Rozkošný, R. (2005). Insecta: Diptera, Stratiomyidae. In C. M. Yule & H. S. Yong (Eds.), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region (pp. 798–804). Academy of Sciences Malaysia.
  • Lautenschläger, M. & Kiel, E. (2005). Assessing morphological degradation in running waters using Blackfly communities (Diptera, Simuliidae): Can habitat quality be predicted from land use? Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 35(4), 262–273. DOI:10.1016/j.limno.2005.04.003
  • Lechthaler, W., Moog, O. & Car, M. (2017). Diptera: Simuliidae. In O. Moog & H. Anne (Eds.), Fauna Aquatica Austriaca (Third edit, p. 11). Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Wien.
  • Luoto, T.P. (2011). Indicator value of midge larvae (Diptera: Nematocera) in shallow boreal lakes with a focus on habitat, water quality, and climate. Aquatic Insects, 33(4), 351–370. DOI:10.1080/01650424.2011.640333
  • Malmqvist, B., Zhang, Y. & Adler, P.H. (1999). Diversity, distribution and larval habitats of North Swedish blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Freshwater Biology, 42(2), 301–314. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2427.1999.444497.x
  • Margalef, R. (1958). Information theory in Ecology. General Systems, 3, 36–71.
  • Mason, C.F. (2002). Biology of freshwater pollution. Harlow, England ; New York : Prentice Hall.
  • Middlekauff, W.W. & Lane, R.S. (1980). Adult and immature Tabanidae (Diptera) of California. University of California Press.
  • Paine, G. H., And, J. R., Gaufin, A.R. & Taft, R.A. (1956). Aquatic Diptera as indicators of pollution in a Midwestern Stream. The Ohio Journal of Science, 56(5), 291–304.
  • Podeniene, V. & Gelhaus, J. K. (2015). Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae). Zootaxa, 4021(1), 93–118. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4021.1.4
  • Ravera, O. (2001). A comparison between diversity, similarity and biotic indices applied to the macroinvertebrate community of a small stream: the Ravella River (Como Province, Northern Italy). Aquatic Ecology, 35(2), 97–107. DOI:10.1023/A:1011433813309
  • Rekolainen, S. (1989). Effect of snow and soil frost melting on the concentrations of suspended solids and phosphorus in two rural watersheds in Western Finland. Aquatic Sciences, 51(3).
  • Reusch, H. & Oosterbroek, P. (1997). Diptera Limoniidae and Pediciidae, short-palped Crane Flies. In A. Nilsson (Ed.), Aquatic insects of North Europe. A taxonomic handbook (Vol. 2, pp. 105–132). Stenstrup: Apollo Books.
  • Rosenberg, D.M. & Resh, V.H. (1993). Introduction to Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg and Resh (Ed.), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (pp. 1–9). New York : Chapman & Hall.
  • Schmedtje, U. & Colling, M. (1996). Ökologische Typisierung der aquatischen Makrofauna. Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft.
  • Šporka, F. (2003). Vodne bezstavovce (makroevertebrata) Slovenska, supis druhov a autekologicke charakteristiky. Slovak Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Checklist and Catalogue of Autecological Notes. Bratislava.
  • Tachet, H., Richoux, P., Bournaud, M., Usseglio-Polatera, P., & Impr. Laballery). (2010). Invertébrés d’eau douce systématique, biologie, écologie. CNRS Editions.
  • Thirion, C. (2016). The determination of flow and habitat requirements for selected riverine macroinvertebrates. North-West University.
  • Türkmen, G.- & Kazancı, N. (2015). Determining the Reference Ephemeroptera Communities in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Turkey. Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, 17(1), 177–194.
  • Türkmen, G. & Kazancı, N. (2016). Habitat quality assessment of streams in Altindere Valley (Trabzon, Turkey) by using physico-chemical variables and various biotic indices based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Review of Hydrobiology, 9(1), 17–36.
  • Ujvárosi, L. & Bálint, M. (2012). Discovery of the second European Amalopis species: An integrative survey of the widespread Pedicia (Amalopis) occulta (Meigen, 1830) (Insecta, Diptera, Pediciidae). Zootaxa, 3189, 1–28. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3189.1.1
  • Ujvárosi, L., Kolcsár, L. P., Bálint, M. & Ciprian, M. (2010). Pediciidae larva (Insecta, Diptera) in the Carpathian basin: preliminary results and further perspectives. Acta Biologica Debrecina. Supplementum Oecologica Hungarica., 21, 233–246.
  • Wagner, R., Barták, M., Borkent, A., Courtney, G., Goddeeris, B., Haenni, J.-P., … Zwick, P. (2008). Global diversity of dipteran families (Insecta Diptera) in freshwater (excluding Simulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tipulidae and Tabanidae). In Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (pp. 489–518). Springer Netherlands. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_49
  • Wotton, Roger S. & Malmqvist, B. (2001). Feces in Aquatic Ecosystems. BioScience, 51, 537–544. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0537:FIAE]2.0.CO;2
  • Zeybek, M. (2017). Macroinvertebrate-based biotic indices for evaluating the water quality of Kargı Stream (Antalya, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology , 41, 476–486. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1602-10
  • Zeybek, M., Kalyoncu, H., Karakaş, B. & Özgül, S. (2014). The use of BMWP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to macroinvertebrates in Değirmendere Stream (Isparta, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 603–613. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1310-9
  • Zwick, P. (1977). Australian Blepariceridae (Diptera). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series, 25(46), 1. DOI:10.1071/ajzs046

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology, Ecology, Limnology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Özge BAŞÖREN (Primary Author)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3424-6423
Türkiye


Nilgün KAZANCI
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2554-7999
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Bilimsel Araştırmalar Birimi
Project Number 07 01 601 005
Thanks This research was supported by Hacettepe University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit (Project title: “Constitution of biotic index for long-term biomonitoring of water quality for Yeşilırmak River by using benthic macroinvertebrates”, Project leader: Prof. Dr. Nilgün Kazancı and Project no: 07 01 601 005).
Publication Date December 15, 2020
Application Date March 22, 2020
Acceptance Date June 18, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4

Cite

APA Başören, Ö. & Kazancı, N. (2020). Distribution of Aquatic Diptera larvae of Yeşilırmak River (Turkey) and ecological characteristics . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 37 (4) , 397-407 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.37.4.11