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Can the early stage copepad (Copepodites and Naupliies) abundance play important role on the fatty acid composition of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha) in the Southeastern Black Sea?

Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4, 335 - 342, 15.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.37.4.03

Abstract



In this study, the relationship between the fatty acid composition, abundance of carnivore Sagitta setosa (S. setosa) and total copepod abundance (copepodites and nauplii) which are the main diets of S. setosa was investigated. Sampling was conducted monthly during a year. During the sampling period, S. setosa and the total the copepod abundance showed a parallel distribution until November. Average total lipid was at the highest with 3% in spring and autumn, while the lowest was 2% in winter and summer. While DHA/EPA ratio (2.23) as carnivory index in S. setosa and the total copepod (copepodites and nauplii) abundance (1375 ind/m3) were at the highest in winter, but another carnivory index, 18:1ω9/18:1ω7 ratio did not show a parallel increase with copepod abundance. However, 18:1ω9 which increases the carnivory index, is among the main fatty acids in S. setosa. This might be indicated that S. setosa does not related to predation on the copepods, but it shows that feeding in a carnivorous style. Additionally, the herbivory index ∑ n-3/∑ n-6 ratio was detected in spring and autumn at the highest level. Consequently, although there is no direct effect between the copepod abundance and S. setosa fatty acids, it is possible an indirect effect.


References

  • Ackman, R.G., Linke, B.A. & Hingley, J. (1974). Some details of fatty acids and alcohols in the lipids of North Atlantic Copepods, ournal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31, 1812-1818.
  • Alkan, A., Zengin, B., Serdar, S. & Oğuz, T. (2013). Long-Term (2001-2011) Temperature, salinity and Chlorophyll-a variations at a Southeastern Coastal site of the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13, 57-68. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-V143_1_08
  • Arts, M.T., Brett, M.T. & Kainz, M.J. (2009). Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 0.1007/978-0-387-89366-2
  • Baier, C. & Purcell, J.E. (1997). Trophic interactions of chaetognaths, larval fish, and zooplankton in the South Atlantic Bight. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 146, 43-53.
  • Beşiktepe, S. & Ünsal, M. (2000). Population structure, vertical distribution and diel migration of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha) in the south-western part of the Black Sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 669-683. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/22.4.669
  • Choe, N., Deibel, D., Thompson, R.J., Lee, S.H. & Bushell, V.K. (2003). Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans from the hyperbenthic zone of Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 251, 191-200.
  • Claustre, H., Marty, J.C. & Cassani, L. (1989). Intraspecific differences in the biochemical composition of a diatom during a spring bloom in Villefranche-sur-mer Bay, Mediterranean Sea. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 129, 17-32. DOI:10.1016/0022-0981(89)90060-9
  • Cook, H.W. (1996). Fatty acid desaturation and chain elongation in eukaryotes. In D.E. Vance and J.E. Vance (Eds.), Biochemistry of Lipids and Membranes (pp 129-152). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Cripps, G.C. & Atkinson, A. (2000). Fatty acid composition as an indicator of carnivory in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 31-37. DOI: 10.1139/f00-167
  • Dalsgaard, J., St John, M., Kattner, G., Muller-Navarra, D. & Hagen, W. (2003). Fatty acid trophic markers in the pelagic marine environment. Advances in Marine Biology, 46, 225-340
  • Duró, A. & Saiz, E. (2000). Distribution and trophic ecology of chaetognaths in the western Mediterranean in relation to an inshore-offshore gradient. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 339-361. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/22.2.339
  • Derieux, S., Fillaux, J. & Saliot, A. (1998). Lipid class and fatty acid distributions in particulate and dissolved fractions in the north Adriatic Sea. Organic Geochemistry, 29, 1609-1621. DOI: 10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00089-8
  • Falk-Petersen, S., Hagen, W., Kattner, G., Clarke, A. & Sargent, J.R. (2000). Lipids, trophic relationships, and biodiversity in Arctic and Antarctic krill. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 178-191. DOI: 10.1139/f00-194
  • Feigenbaum, D.L. & Maris, R.C. (1984). Feeding in the Chaetognatha. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review, 22, 343-392.
  • Feigenbaum, D.L. (1991). Food and feeding behaviour. In Q. Bone, H. Kapp, A.C. Pierrot-Bults (Eds), The Biology of Chaetognaths (pp 45-54) New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957). A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497-509.
  • Harris, R.P., Wiebe, P.H., Lenz, J., Skjoldal, H.R. & Huntley, M. (2000). ICES Zooplankton Methodology Manual. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • Harvey, H.R., Eglinton, G., O’Hara, S.C.M. & Corner, E.D.S (1987). Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51, 3031-3040
  • Johnson, W.S. & Allen, D.M. (2005). Zooplankton of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts: A Guide to Their Identification and Ecology. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Kates, M. (1986). Techniques of lipidology: isolation, analysis, and identification of lipids. 2nd Edition, Amsterdam: New York: Elsevier Science Pub Co, 3(2), 464.
  • Kovalev, A., Beşiktepe, S., Zagorodnyaya, Yu. A. & Kideys, A.E. (1998). Mediterranization of the Black Sea zooplankton is continuing. In L. Ivanov, T. Oguz (Eds), NATO TU-Black Sea Project: Ecosystem Modeling as a Management Tool for the Black Sea, Symposium on Scientific Results ( pp 21-234). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Lalli, C.M. & Parsons, T.R. (2004). Biological Oceanography an Introduction (pp 314). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Lee, R.F., Hirota, J. & Barnett, A.M. (1971). Distribution and importance of wax esters in marine copepods and in other zooplankton. Deep- Sea Research, 18, 1147-1165.
  • Litzow, M.A., Bailey, K.M., Prahl, F.G. & Heintz, R. (2006). Climate regime shifts and reorganization of fish communities: the essential fatty acid limitation hypothesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 315, 1-11.
  • Mauchline, J, Blaxter, J.H.S., Southward, A.J. & Tyler, P.A. (1998). The Biology of Calanoid Copepods. Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 33. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • Morris, R.J. (1971). Comparison of the composition of oceanic copepods from different depths. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 40 B, 275-281.
  • Müller-Navarra, D.C. (1995). Biochemical versus mineral limitation in Daphnia. The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1209-1214.
  • Müller-Navarra, D.C, Brett, M.T., Liston, A. & Goldman, C.R. (2000). A highlyunsaturated fatty acid predicts biomass transfer between primary producers and consumers. Nature, 403, 74-77. DOI: 10.1038/47469.
  • Niermann, U. & Greve, W. (1997). Distribution and fluctuation of dominant zooplankton species in the southern Black Sea in comparison to the North Sea and Baltic Sea. In Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sensitivity of North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea to Anthropogenic and Climatic Changes (pp 65-77), Varna, Bulgaria.
  • Niermann, U., Bingel, F., Ergun, G. & Greve, W. (1998). Fluctuation of dominant mesoplankton species in the Black Sea, North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Is a general trend recognisable? Turkish Journal of Zoology, 22, 63-82.
  • Øresland, V. (1983). Abundance, breeding and temporal size distribution of the chaetognath Sagitta setosa in the Kattegat. Journal of Plankton Research, 5, 425-439.
  • Øresland, V. (1985). Temporal size and maturity-stage distribution of Sagitta elegans and occurrence of other chaetognath species in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Sarsia, 70, 95-101.
  • Øresland, V. (1987). Feeding of the chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and S. setosa at different seasons in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 39, 69-79.
  • Öztürk, S. (2002). Time-Dependent Distribution and Population structure of Sagitta Setosa in Sürmene Bay, MSc Thesis, KTU The Graduate of Naturel and Applied Sciences, Turkey, Trabzon, 43 pp. (in Turkish). Parrish, C.C. (2009). Essential fatty acids in aquatic food webs. In M. T. Arts, M. T. Brett, M. Kainz (Eds). Lipids in aquatic ecosystems (pp 306-326). New York, USA: Springer.
  • Prahl, F.G., Eglinton, G., Corner, E.D.S, MO’hara, S.C. & Forsberg, T.E.V. (1984). Changes in plant lipids abundance passage through the gut of Calanus. Journal of Marine Biology Association UK, 64(3), 17-334.
  • Pond, C.M. (1998). The Fats of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  • Ravet, J.L., Brett, M.T. & Müller-Navarra, D.C. (2003). A test of the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phytoplankton food quality for Daphnia using liposome supplementation. Limnology and Oceanography, 48, 1938-1947. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2003.48.5.1938
  • Reeve, M.R. (1980). Comparative experimental studies on the feeding of chaetognaths and ctenophores. Journal of Plankton Research, 2, 381-393.
  • Rustan, A.C. & Drevon, C.A. (2005). Fatty Acids: Structures and Properties. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 1-7. DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003894
  • Sargent, J.R. & Falk-Petersen S. (1981). Ecological investigations on the zooplankton community in Balsfjorden, northern Norway: lipids and fatty acids in Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Thysanoessa raschi and T. inermis abundance mid-winter. Marine Biology, 62, 131-137.
  • Sargent, J.R. & Falk-Petersen, S. (1988). The lipid chemistry of Calanoid Copepods. Hydrobiologia, 167(1), 101-114.
  • Sen Ozdemir, N., Feyzioglu, A.M., Caf, F. & Yildiz, I. (2017). Seasonal changes in abundance, lipid and fatty acid composition of Calanus euxinus in the South-eastern Black Sea. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 64(3): 55-66. DOI:10.21077/ijf.2017.64.3.62172-09
  • Şen Özdemir, N. (2013). Zooplankton of Eastern Black Sea (Trabzon Coastline) and Seasonal Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Zoopolankton, Phd Thesis, KTU The Graduate of Naturel and Applied Sciences, Turkey (in Turkish).
  • Ünal, E. (2002). Seasonality of zooplankton in the Southern Black Sea and genetics of Kopepot Calanus euxinus, MSc Thesis, ODTÜ, Marine Sciences Institute, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
  • Veloza, A.J., Chu, F.E. & Tang, K.W. (2006). Trophic modification of essential fatty acids by heterotrophic protists and its effects on the fatty acid composition of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Marine Biology, 148, 779-788. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-005-0123-1
  • Vinogradov, M.Ye, Musayeva, E.I. & Semenova, T.N. (1990). Factors determining the position of the lower layer of mesoplankton concentration in the Black Sea. Oceanology, 30, 217-224.
  • Vinogradov, M.Ye, Sapozhnikov, V.V. & Shushkina, E.A. (1992) The Black Sea Ecosystem (112 pp). Moscow, Russia: Nauka Dumka.
  • Yıldız, İ. & Feyzioğlu, A.M. (2014). Biological Diversity and seasonal variation of mesozooplankton in the southeastern Black Sea coastal ecosystem. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 179-10. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1304-32
  • Zenkevitch, L. (1963). Biology of the Seas of the USSR. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, pp. 403-426.

Güneydoğu Karadeniz'de erken aşamadaki kopepod (kopepoditler ve naupliler) bolluğu Sagitta setosa (chaetognatha) yağ asiti kompozisyonu üzerinde önemli rol oynayabilir mi?

Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4, 335 - 342, 15.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.37.4.03

Abstract



Bu calışmada karnivor bir tür olan Sagitta setosa’nın yağ asiti kompozisyonu ve bolluğu ile üzerinden yoğun bir şekilde beslendigi kopepodların (kopepoditler ve kopepot nauplileri) bolluğu arasındaki ilişki incelenmistir. Örneklemeler bir yıl boyunca aylık periyotlarda yapılmıştır. Örnekleme dönemi boyunca S. setosa ve toplam copepod bolluğu, kasım ayına kadar parallel bir dağılım göstermiştir. Ortalama toplam lipit miktarı % 3 ile en yüksek ilkbahar ve sonbahar, en düşük ise % 2 ile kış ve yaz aylarında belirlenmiştir. S. setosa’da karnivor indeksi olarak DHA/EPA oranı (2.23) ve kopepod bolluğu (1375 birey/m3) en yüksek değerlerini kış döneminde almışlardır. Bu dönemdeki yüksek kopepod bolluğunun S. setosa’daki karnivor indeksi yağ asitlerini artırmaya katkı sagladığı söylenebilir. Fakat diğer bir karnivor indeksi olan 18:1ω9/18:1ω7 oranı kopepod bolluğu ile papalel bir artış gostermemiştir. Ancak, karnivor indeksini artıran 18:1ω9 un S. setosa’daki temel yağ asitleri arasında olması, S. setosa’nın her zaman kopepodlar üzerinden bir predasyon sergilemese de karnivor beslendiğine kanıt olarak gösterilebilir. Bunun yanında, herbivor indeksi olan ∑ω3/∑ω6 oranı en yüksek ilkbaharda ve sonabaharda belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, kopepod bolluğu ile S. setosa’nın yağ asitleri arasında direkt bir etki olmasa da indirekt bir etkinin varlığından bahsedilebilir.




References

  • Ackman, R.G., Linke, B.A. & Hingley, J. (1974). Some details of fatty acids and alcohols in the lipids of North Atlantic Copepods, ournal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31, 1812-1818.
  • Alkan, A., Zengin, B., Serdar, S. & Oğuz, T. (2013). Long-Term (2001-2011) Temperature, salinity and Chlorophyll-a variations at a Southeastern Coastal site of the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13, 57-68. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-V143_1_08
  • Arts, M.T., Brett, M.T. & Kainz, M.J. (2009). Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 0.1007/978-0-387-89366-2
  • Baier, C. & Purcell, J.E. (1997). Trophic interactions of chaetognaths, larval fish, and zooplankton in the South Atlantic Bight. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 146, 43-53.
  • Beşiktepe, S. & Ünsal, M. (2000). Population structure, vertical distribution and diel migration of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha) in the south-western part of the Black Sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 669-683. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/22.4.669
  • Choe, N., Deibel, D., Thompson, R.J., Lee, S.H. & Bushell, V.K. (2003). Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans from the hyperbenthic zone of Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 251, 191-200.
  • Claustre, H., Marty, J.C. & Cassani, L. (1989). Intraspecific differences in the biochemical composition of a diatom during a spring bloom in Villefranche-sur-mer Bay, Mediterranean Sea. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 129, 17-32. DOI:10.1016/0022-0981(89)90060-9
  • Cook, H.W. (1996). Fatty acid desaturation and chain elongation in eukaryotes. In D.E. Vance and J.E. Vance (Eds.), Biochemistry of Lipids and Membranes (pp 129-152). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Cripps, G.C. & Atkinson, A. (2000). Fatty acid composition as an indicator of carnivory in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 31-37. DOI: 10.1139/f00-167
  • Dalsgaard, J., St John, M., Kattner, G., Muller-Navarra, D. & Hagen, W. (2003). Fatty acid trophic markers in the pelagic marine environment. Advances in Marine Biology, 46, 225-340
  • Duró, A. & Saiz, E. (2000). Distribution and trophic ecology of chaetognaths in the western Mediterranean in relation to an inshore-offshore gradient. Journal of Plankton Research, 22, 339-361. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/22.2.339
  • Derieux, S., Fillaux, J. & Saliot, A. (1998). Lipid class and fatty acid distributions in particulate and dissolved fractions in the north Adriatic Sea. Organic Geochemistry, 29, 1609-1621. DOI: 10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00089-8
  • Falk-Petersen, S., Hagen, W., Kattner, G., Clarke, A. & Sargent, J.R. (2000). Lipids, trophic relationships, and biodiversity in Arctic and Antarctic krill. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 178-191. DOI: 10.1139/f00-194
  • Feigenbaum, D.L. & Maris, R.C. (1984). Feeding in the Chaetognatha. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review, 22, 343-392.
  • Feigenbaum, D.L. (1991). Food and feeding behaviour. In Q. Bone, H. Kapp, A.C. Pierrot-Bults (Eds), The Biology of Chaetognaths (pp 45-54) New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957). A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497-509.
  • Harris, R.P., Wiebe, P.H., Lenz, J., Skjoldal, H.R. & Huntley, M. (2000). ICES Zooplankton Methodology Manual. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • Harvey, H.R., Eglinton, G., O’Hara, S.C.M. & Corner, E.D.S (1987). Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51, 3031-3040
  • Johnson, W.S. & Allen, D.M. (2005). Zooplankton of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts: A Guide to Their Identification and Ecology. Baltimore, MD, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Kates, M. (1986). Techniques of lipidology: isolation, analysis, and identification of lipids. 2nd Edition, Amsterdam: New York: Elsevier Science Pub Co, 3(2), 464.
  • Kovalev, A., Beşiktepe, S., Zagorodnyaya, Yu. A. & Kideys, A.E. (1998). Mediterranization of the Black Sea zooplankton is continuing. In L. Ivanov, T. Oguz (Eds), NATO TU-Black Sea Project: Ecosystem Modeling as a Management Tool for the Black Sea, Symposium on Scientific Results ( pp 21-234). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Lalli, C.M. & Parsons, T.R. (2004). Biological Oceanography an Introduction (pp 314). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Lee, R.F., Hirota, J. & Barnett, A.M. (1971). Distribution and importance of wax esters in marine copepods and in other zooplankton. Deep- Sea Research, 18, 1147-1165.
  • Litzow, M.A., Bailey, K.M., Prahl, F.G. & Heintz, R. (2006). Climate regime shifts and reorganization of fish communities: the essential fatty acid limitation hypothesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 315, 1-11.
  • Mauchline, J, Blaxter, J.H.S., Southward, A.J. & Tyler, P.A. (1998). The Biology of Calanoid Copepods. Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 33. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
  • Morris, R.J. (1971). Comparison of the composition of oceanic copepods from different depths. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 40 B, 275-281.
  • Müller-Navarra, D.C. (1995). Biochemical versus mineral limitation in Daphnia. The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1209-1214.
  • Müller-Navarra, D.C, Brett, M.T., Liston, A. & Goldman, C.R. (2000). A highlyunsaturated fatty acid predicts biomass transfer between primary producers and consumers. Nature, 403, 74-77. DOI: 10.1038/47469.
  • Niermann, U. & Greve, W. (1997). Distribution and fluctuation of dominant zooplankton species in the southern Black Sea in comparison to the North Sea and Baltic Sea. In Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sensitivity of North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea to Anthropogenic and Climatic Changes (pp 65-77), Varna, Bulgaria.
  • Niermann, U., Bingel, F., Ergun, G. & Greve, W. (1998). Fluctuation of dominant mesoplankton species in the Black Sea, North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Is a general trend recognisable? Turkish Journal of Zoology, 22, 63-82.
  • Øresland, V. (1983). Abundance, breeding and temporal size distribution of the chaetognath Sagitta setosa in the Kattegat. Journal of Plankton Research, 5, 425-439.
  • Øresland, V. (1985). Temporal size and maturity-stage distribution of Sagitta elegans and occurrence of other chaetognath species in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Sarsia, 70, 95-101.
  • Øresland, V. (1987). Feeding of the chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and S. setosa at different seasons in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 39, 69-79.
  • Öztürk, S. (2002). Time-Dependent Distribution and Population structure of Sagitta Setosa in Sürmene Bay, MSc Thesis, KTU The Graduate of Naturel and Applied Sciences, Turkey, Trabzon, 43 pp. (in Turkish). Parrish, C.C. (2009). Essential fatty acids in aquatic food webs. In M. T. Arts, M. T. Brett, M. Kainz (Eds). Lipids in aquatic ecosystems (pp 306-326). New York, USA: Springer.
  • Prahl, F.G., Eglinton, G., Corner, E.D.S, MO’hara, S.C. & Forsberg, T.E.V. (1984). Changes in plant lipids abundance passage through the gut of Calanus. Journal of Marine Biology Association UK, 64(3), 17-334.
  • Pond, C.M. (1998). The Fats of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  • Ravet, J.L., Brett, M.T. & Müller-Navarra, D.C. (2003). A test of the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phytoplankton food quality for Daphnia using liposome supplementation. Limnology and Oceanography, 48, 1938-1947. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2003.48.5.1938
  • Reeve, M.R. (1980). Comparative experimental studies on the feeding of chaetognaths and ctenophores. Journal of Plankton Research, 2, 381-393.
  • Rustan, A.C. & Drevon, C.A. (2005). Fatty Acids: Structures and Properties. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 1-7. DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0003894
  • Sargent, J.R. & Falk-Petersen S. (1981). Ecological investigations on the zooplankton community in Balsfjorden, northern Norway: lipids and fatty acids in Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Thysanoessa raschi and T. inermis abundance mid-winter. Marine Biology, 62, 131-137.
  • Sargent, J.R. & Falk-Petersen, S. (1988). The lipid chemistry of Calanoid Copepods. Hydrobiologia, 167(1), 101-114.
  • Sen Ozdemir, N., Feyzioglu, A.M., Caf, F. & Yildiz, I. (2017). Seasonal changes in abundance, lipid and fatty acid composition of Calanus euxinus in the South-eastern Black Sea. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 64(3): 55-66. DOI:10.21077/ijf.2017.64.3.62172-09
  • Şen Özdemir, N. (2013). Zooplankton of Eastern Black Sea (Trabzon Coastline) and Seasonal Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Zoopolankton, Phd Thesis, KTU The Graduate of Naturel and Applied Sciences, Turkey (in Turkish).
  • Ünal, E. (2002). Seasonality of zooplankton in the Southern Black Sea and genetics of Kopepot Calanus euxinus, MSc Thesis, ODTÜ, Marine Sciences Institute, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
  • Veloza, A.J., Chu, F.E. & Tang, K.W. (2006). Trophic modification of essential fatty acids by heterotrophic protists and its effects on the fatty acid composition of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Marine Biology, 148, 779-788. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-005-0123-1
  • Vinogradov, M.Ye, Musayeva, E.I. & Semenova, T.N. (1990). Factors determining the position of the lower layer of mesoplankton concentration in the Black Sea. Oceanology, 30, 217-224.
  • Vinogradov, M.Ye, Sapozhnikov, V.V. & Shushkina, E.A. (1992) The Black Sea Ecosystem (112 pp). Moscow, Russia: Nauka Dumka.
  • Yıldız, İ. & Feyzioğlu, A.M. (2014). Biological Diversity and seasonal variation of mesozooplankton in the southeastern Black Sea coastal ecosystem. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 179-10. DOI:10.3906/zoo-1304-32
  • Zenkevitch, L. (1963). Biology of the Seas of the USSR. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, pp. 403-426.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Fisheries
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Nurgül SEN ÖZDEMİR (Primary Author)
BINGOL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-6656-822X
Türkiye


Muzaffer FEYZİOĞLU
KTU
0000-0003-1171-5493
Türkiye


Fatma CAF
Bingol University
0000-0002-0363-4848
Türkiye


İlknur YILDIZ
KTU
0000-0003-2424-8644
Türkiye

Supporting Institution KTU- BAP
Project Number 2010.117.001.9
Thanks We thank Research Assistant Ümit DOKUZPARMAK and the crew of KTU YAKAMOZ for help in collection of the samples, and Prof. Dr. Ökkeş YILMAZ for his help with GC analyses.
Publication Date December 15, 2020
Application Date December 12, 2019
Acceptance Date June 1, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 37, Issue 4

Cite

APA Sen Özdemir, N. , Feyzioğlu, M. , Caf, F. & Yıldız, İ. (2020). Can the early stage copepad (Copepodites and Naupliies) abundance play important role on the fatty acid composition of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha) in the Southeastern Black Sea? . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 37 (4) , 335-342 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.37.4.03