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The effects of the fig (Ficus carica) extract and onion (Allium capa) extract addition to Cyprinus carpio feeds in different amount on the growth performance

Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3, 321 - 326, 26.09.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.11

Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fig extract and onion extract supplementation in diet on growth performance, feed utilization, biometric indexes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fig and onion extract were added to experimental diets at the rate of 1,3,5 g / kg respectively. Fishes were fed with trial feed for 90 days. At the end of the trial period, weight increase and specific growth rate of the fishes fed with the feed containing 1.3 g/kg fig extract and 1.3 g/kg onion extract were found to be higher than the control group; food conversion ratio was found to be lower than the control group (p<0.05). Hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index amounts of the fishes fed with fig extract and onion extract feeds were found to be lower than the control group; and spleen somatic index was found to be higher than the control group (p<0.05). The amount of visceral organ fat index was found to be lower among the fishes fed with the feed containing fig and onion extracts compared to the control group (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of 1.3 g/kg fig extract in the commercial diets could improve some biometric indexes.

References

  • AOAC. (1998). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg.
  • Cho S.H., Lee S.M., Park B.H., Ji S.C., Lee J., Bae J. & Oh, S.Y. (2007). Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Various Sources of Green Tea on Growth, Body Composition and Blood Chemistry of The Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 33: 49–57. doi:10.1007/s10695-006-9116-3
  • Cho, S.H. (2011). Effects of Putative Growth or Health-Enhancing Dietary Additives on Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Performance. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 42(1): 90-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00447.x
  • Denli, M., Okan, F. & Uluocak, A.N. (2004). Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Herb Essential Oils on the Growth Performance, Carcass and Intestinal Characteristics of Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). South Africa Society for Animal Science, 34: 174-179.
  • Dığrak, M., Bağcı, E. & Alma, M.H. (2002). Antibiotic Action of Seed Lipids from Five Tree Species Grown in Turkey. Pharmaceutical Biology, 40(6), 425-428.doi:10.1076/phbi.40.6.425.8445
  • Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957). A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 497-509.
  • Francis G., Makkar H.P.S. ve Becker K., (2002). Effects of Cyclic and Regular Feeding of a Quillaja Saponin Supplemented Diet on Growth and Metabolism of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 24: 343–350. doi: 10.1023/A:1015047208108
  • Goda, A.M.A.S., (2008). Effect of Dietary Ginseng Herb (Ginsana G115) Supplementation on Growth, Feed Utilization, and Hematological Indices of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Fingerlings. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(2): 205-214. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2008.00153.x
  • Immanuel, G., Uma, R.P., Iyapparaj, P., Citarasu, T., Punitha Peter, S.M., Michael Babu, M. & Palavesam, A. (2009). Dietary Medicinal Plant Extracts Improve Growth, Immune Activity and Survival of Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Journal of Fish Biology, 74(7): 1462-1475. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02212.x.
  • Jeong, C., Heo, H.J., Choi, S. & Shim, K. (2009). Antioxidant and anticancer properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of white, yellow and red onion. Food Science and Biotechnology, 18: 108–112.
  • Kahraman, Z. (2009). Herbal Extracts and Their Usage in Laying Hen Diets, Poultry Research Journal, 8(1): 34-41.
  • Kassaian N., Azadbakht L., Forghani B. & Amini M. (2009). Effect of Fenugreek Seeds on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 79(1): 34-39. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.1.34
  • Kıvanç, M. & Akgül, A. (1986). Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Turkish Species and Citrus. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 1: 175-179. doi: 10.1002/ffj.2730010409
  • Lee, J., Jung, W.G., Cho, S.H. & Kim, D.S. (2015). Effect of various sources of dietary additive on growth, body composition and serum chemistry of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture Research, 46: 2194–2203. doi: 10.1111/are.12388.
  • Oskoii, S.B., Kohyani, A.T., Parseh, A., Salati, A.P. & Sadeghi, E. (2012). Effects of dietary Administration of Echinacea purpurea on Growth Indices and Biochemical and Hematological Indices in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fingerlings. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38(4):1029-1034. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9587-8
  • Ramos, F.A., Takaishi, Y., Shirotori, M., Kawaguchi, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Shibata, H., Higuti, T., Tadokoro, T. & Takeuchi, M. (2006). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 3551–3557. doi: 10.1021/jf060251c
  • Ryu, S.R., & Jung, S.T. (1999). The preparation and synthesis of antifungal agents using biological activity compounds separated in figs. Applied Chemistry 3: 165–168.
  • Sönmez, A.Y., Bilen, S., Alak, G., Hisar, O., Yanık, T. & Biswas, G. (2015). Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry., 41: 165-175, doi: 10.1007/s10695-014-0014-9.
  • Şimşek, Ü.G., Güler, T., Çiftçi, M., Ertaş, O.N. & Dalkılıç, B. (2005). The Effect of an Essence Oil Mix (Derived from Oregano, Clove and Anise) on Body Weight and Carcass Characteristic in Broiler. Journal of Veterinary faculty, 16 (2): 1-5.
  • Yang, X.M., Yu, W., Ou, Z.P. , Ma, H.I., Liu, W. & Ji, X.I. (2009). Antioxidant and immunity activity of water extract and crude polysaccharide from Ficus carica L. fruit. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64: 167–173. doi: 10.1007/s11130-009-0120-5
  • Yiğitarslan, K.D., Azdural, K., Yavuz, U. & Turan, F. (2011). Phytotherapy Practices in rainbow trout. Turkish Scientific Review Journal, 4 (1): 63-68.
  • Yilmaz, E.; Ergün, S. & Yilmaz, S. (2015). Influence of carvacrol on the growth performance, hematological, non-specific immune and serum biochemistry parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 523–531. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.65054
  • Zakes Z., Kowalska A., Zakes K. D., Jeney G. & Jeney Z., (2008). Effect of Two Medicinal Herbs (Astragalus radix and Lonicera japonica) on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)). Aquaculture Research, 39: 1149-1160. doi: 10.1111/j.1365 2109.2008.01977.x
  • Zheng Z.L., Tan J.Y.W., Liu H.Y., Zhou X.H., Xiang X. & Wang K.Y., (2009). Evaluation of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on Growth, Antioxidant Effect and Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 292: 214-218. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.025

İncir (Ficus carica) ekstraktı ve soğan (Allium capa) ekstraktının Cyprinus carpio balıklarının büyüme performansı ve yem dönüşüm oranı üzerine etkisi

Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3, 321 - 326, 26.09.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.11

Abstract

Bu çalışmada incir ekstraktı ve soğan ekstraktının sazan balığı (Cyprinus carpio) yemlerine eklenmesinin büyüme performansı, yem değerlendirme ve biyometrik ölçümlere etkisi araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla iki tıbbi bitki ekstraktı deneme yemlerine sırasıyla 1,3,5g/kg oranlarında ilave edilmiştir. Balıklar 90 gün boyunca deneme yemleriyle beslenmiştir. Deneme sonunda 1,3 g/kg incir ve 1,3 g/kg soğan ekstraktı içerikli yemlerle beslenen balıkların ağırlık artışı ve spesifik büyüme oranı kontrol grubundan daha fazla, yem dönüşüm oranı ise kontrol grubundan daha düşük bulunmuş ve istatistiksel olarak önemli bir fark çıkmıştır (p<0,05). İncir ekstraktı ve soğan ekstraktı yemiyle beslenen balıkların hepatosomatik indeks ve visserosomatik indeks miktarı kontrol grubundan düşük, spleensomatik indeks miktarı kontrol grubundan yüksek bulunmuştur. Gruplar arasında istatistik fark vardır (p<0,05). İç organ yağ indeksi miktarıda incir ve soğan ekstraktı yemiyle beslenen balıklarda kontrole göre düşük bulunmuş fakat gruplar arasında istatistik fark gözlenmemiştir (p>0,05). Sonuç olarak yemlere 1,3,5 g/kg oranında incir meyvesi ve soğan ekstraktları ilavesi bazı biyometrik ölçümleri geliştirmiştir.

References

  • AOAC. (1998). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg.
  • Cho S.H., Lee S.M., Park B.H., Ji S.C., Lee J., Bae J. & Oh, S.Y. (2007). Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Various Sources of Green Tea on Growth, Body Composition and Blood Chemistry of The Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 33: 49–57. doi:10.1007/s10695-006-9116-3
  • Cho, S.H. (2011). Effects of Putative Growth or Health-Enhancing Dietary Additives on Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Performance. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 42(1): 90-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00447.x
  • Denli, M., Okan, F. & Uluocak, A.N. (2004). Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Herb Essential Oils on the Growth Performance, Carcass and Intestinal Characteristics of Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). South Africa Society for Animal Science, 34: 174-179.
  • Dığrak, M., Bağcı, E. & Alma, M.H. (2002). Antibiotic Action of Seed Lipids from Five Tree Species Grown in Turkey. Pharmaceutical Biology, 40(6), 425-428.doi:10.1076/phbi.40.6.425.8445
  • Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957). A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 497-509.
  • Francis G., Makkar H.P.S. ve Becker K., (2002). Effects of Cyclic and Regular Feeding of a Quillaja Saponin Supplemented Diet on Growth and Metabolism of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 24: 343–350. doi: 10.1023/A:1015047208108
  • Goda, A.M.A.S., (2008). Effect of Dietary Ginseng Herb (Ginsana G115) Supplementation on Growth, Feed Utilization, and Hematological Indices of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Fingerlings. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(2): 205-214. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2008.00153.x
  • Immanuel, G., Uma, R.P., Iyapparaj, P., Citarasu, T., Punitha Peter, S.M., Michael Babu, M. & Palavesam, A. (2009). Dietary Medicinal Plant Extracts Improve Growth, Immune Activity and Survival of Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Journal of Fish Biology, 74(7): 1462-1475. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02212.x.
  • Jeong, C., Heo, H.J., Choi, S. & Shim, K. (2009). Antioxidant and anticancer properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of white, yellow and red onion. Food Science and Biotechnology, 18: 108–112.
  • Kahraman, Z. (2009). Herbal Extracts and Their Usage in Laying Hen Diets, Poultry Research Journal, 8(1): 34-41.
  • Kassaian N., Azadbakht L., Forghani B. & Amini M. (2009). Effect of Fenugreek Seeds on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 79(1): 34-39. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.1.34
  • Kıvanç, M. & Akgül, A. (1986). Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Turkish Species and Citrus. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 1: 175-179. doi: 10.1002/ffj.2730010409
  • Lee, J., Jung, W.G., Cho, S.H. & Kim, D.S. (2015). Effect of various sources of dietary additive on growth, body composition and serum chemistry of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture Research, 46: 2194–2203. doi: 10.1111/are.12388.
  • Oskoii, S.B., Kohyani, A.T., Parseh, A., Salati, A.P. & Sadeghi, E. (2012). Effects of dietary Administration of Echinacea purpurea on Growth Indices and Biochemical and Hematological Indices in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fingerlings. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38(4):1029-1034. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9587-8
  • Ramos, F.A., Takaishi, Y., Shirotori, M., Kawaguchi, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Shibata, H., Higuti, T., Tadokoro, T. & Takeuchi, M. (2006). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 3551–3557. doi: 10.1021/jf060251c
  • Ryu, S.R., & Jung, S.T. (1999). The preparation and synthesis of antifungal agents using biological activity compounds separated in figs. Applied Chemistry 3: 165–168.
  • Sönmez, A.Y., Bilen, S., Alak, G., Hisar, O., Yanık, T. & Biswas, G. (2015). Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry., 41: 165-175, doi: 10.1007/s10695-014-0014-9.
  • Şimşek, Ü.G., Güler, T., Çiftçi, M., Ertaş, O.N. & Dalkılıç, B. (2005). The Effect of an Essence Oil Mix (Derived from Oregano, Clove and Anise) on Body Weight and Carcass Characteristic in Broiler. Journal of Veterinary faculty, 16 (2): 1-5.
  • Yang, X.M., Yu, W., Ou, Z.P. , Ma, H.I., Liu, W. & Ji, X.I. (2009). Antioxidant and immunity activity of water extract and crude polysaccharide from Ficus carica L. fruit. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64: 167–173. doi: 10.1007/s11130-009-0120-5
  • Yiğitarslan, K.D., Azdural, K., Yavuz, U. & Turan, F. (2011). Phytotherapy Practices in rainbow trout. Turkish Scientific Review Journal, 4 (1): 63-68.
  • Yilmaz, E.; Ergün, S. & Yilmaz, S. (2015). Influence of carvacrol on the growth performance, hematological, non-specific immune and serum biochemistry parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 523–531. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.65054
  • Zakes Z., Kowalska A., Zakes K. D., Jeney G. & Jeney Z., (2008). Effect of Two Medicinal Herbs (Astragalus radix and Lonicera japonica) on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)). Aquaculture Research, 39: 1149-1160. doi: 10.1111/j.1365 2109.2008.01977.x
  • Zheng Z.L., Tan J.Y.W., Liu H.Y., Zhou X.H., Xiang X. & Wang K.Y., (2009). Evaluation of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on Growth, Antioxidant Effect and Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 292: 214-218. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.025

Details

Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ebru Yılmaz
orcid.org/0000-0003-1905-1265
Türkiye


Deniz Çoban
Türkiye


Fatih Bayar This is me
Türkiye

Publication Date September 26, 2017
Application Date April 3, 2017
Acceptance Date June 22, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3

Cite

APA Yılmaz, E. , Çoban, D. & Bayar, F. (2017). The effects of the fig (Ficus carica) extract and onion (Allium capa) extract addition to Cyprinus carpio feeds in different amount on the growth performance . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 34 (3) , 321-326 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.11