Research Article
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Derin yağda kızartmanın sardalya kroketlerin kimyasal kompozisyonuna etkisi

Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3, 293 - 302, 26.09.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.08

Abstract

Bu çalışmada sardalya etinden elde edilen kroketlere derin yağda kızartmanın ürünlerin kimyasal komposizyonuna etkisi belirlenmiştir. Amino asit analizlerine göre, sırasıyla en yüksek miktarda glutamik asit, lizin ve lösin bulunmuştur. Lösin, isolosin, lizin, fenilalanin ve treonin miktarı kızartma sonrasında düşerken, metiyonin miktarı istatistiki olarak değişmemiştir. Triptofan hariç insanlar için elzem amino asitlerden hepsi sardalya eti ve kroketlerde tespit edilmiştir. Kroket üretimi ve kızartma işlemi sırasında sardalya etindeki toplam doymamış yağ asidi miktarının artmasına bağlı olarak toplam doymuş yağ asidi miktarı azalmıştır. Çoklu doymamış yağ asitlerinden dokosaheksaenoik asit, eikosapentaenoik asit ve linoleic asit tüm gruplarda tespit edilmiştir. Final ürünlerin mineral kompozisyonlarını dikkate aldığımızda ise, derin yağda kızartmanın iz element miktarlarını etkilemediği bu çalışma ile gösterilmiştir. Ayrıca, insanlar için toksik olan elementler hiçbir üründe bulunmamıştır.

References

  • Aksoy, M. (2007). Nutrition and cancer. In M. Tuncer (Ed.), Cancer control in Turkey (pp. 189–197). Ankara/Turkey.
  • AOAC. (2000). Food analysis (Vol. Chapt). Gaithersburg.
  • Ayas, D. (2006). Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus) ve Sardalya (Sardina pilchardus)’nın Sıcak Tütsülenmesi Sonrasındaki Kimyasal Kompozisyon Oranlarındaki Değişimleri. E.Ü Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23(1–3), 343–346.
  • Badawy, A. A. B., Morgan, C. J., & Turner, J. A. (2008). Application of the Phenomenex EZ:faastTM amino acid analysis kit for rapid gas-chromatographic determination of concentrations of plasma tryptophan and its brain uptake competitors. Amino Acids, 34(4), 587–596.
  • Berik, N., Cankiriligil, C., & Kahraman, D. (2011). Determination of quality attributes and production of fingers from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 17(5), 735–740.
  • Bilgin, S., Izci, L., Gunlu, A., & Bolat, Y. (2010). Effect of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical components, quality parameters and cholesterol levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(39), 6573–6577.
  • Burke, P. A., Ling, P. R., Forse, R. A., Lewis, D. W., Jenkins, R., & Bistrian, B. R. (2001). Sites of conditional essential fatty acid deficiency in end stage liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 25(4), 188–193. http://doi.org/10.1177/0148607101025004188
  • Cakli, S. (2007). Seafood Processing Technologoies 2. Izmır-Turkey: University of Ege Publishing.
  • Chi, Z., Yan, K., Gao, L., Li, J., Wang, & Wang, L. (2008). Diversity of marine yeasts with high protein content and evaluation of their nutritive compositions. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 88(7), 1347–1352.
  • Commission, E. (2001). Commission Regulation (EC) no. 221/2002 of 6 February 2002 amending regulation (EC) no. 466/2002 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Brussel.
  • Dean, L. M. (1990). The seafood industry. In G. J. Martin (Ed.), Nutrition and Preparation (pp. 255–267). New York-U.S.A.: Van Nostrand Rainhold.
  • EPA. (1998). United States of Enviromental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.leco.com/products/organic/ama_254/pdf/7473.pdf
  • Erkan, N., Selcuk, A., & Ozden, O. (2010). Amino acid and vitamin composition of raw and cooked horse mackerel. Food Analytical Methods, 3(3), Erkan, N., Selcuk, A. and Ozden, O.
  • FAO. (2014). Global Production Statistics - FAO web version (03/2016). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/en
  • Folch, J., Lees, M., & Sladane-Stanley, G. H. A. (1957). Simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem, 226, 497–509.
  • Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2016). FishBase, version (03/2016). Retrieved from www.fishbase.org
  • Gary, L. (2015). Market report: Sunflower seed and oil. Lipid Technology, 27(1), 24.
  • Ghosh, S., & Bhattacharyya, D. K. (1997). Medium-chain fatty acid-rich glycerides by chemical and lipase-catalyzed polyester-monoester interchange reaction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74(5), 593. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0186-x
  • Gokoglu, N. (2002). Seafood Processing Technology. Istanbul: Foundation of Water Publishing.
  • Grodner, R. M., Andrews, L. S., & Martin, R. E. (1991). Chemical Composition of Seafood Breading and Batter Mixes. Cereal Chemistry, 68(2), 162 – 164.
  • Hall, G. M. (1997). Fish Processing Technology (Second Edi). London: Boundary Row.
  • Horwitz, W. (2000). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (Oma). Education Gaithersburg.
  • IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. (1979). Standards methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives (6th ed.). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
  • Khan, M., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., & Nowsad Alam, A. (2013). Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 11(2), 331–340. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v11i2.19937
  • Khazaei, N., Esmaiili, M., & Emam-Djomeh, Z. (2016). Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying. Carbohydrate Polymers, 137, 249–254. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.084
  • Köksal, G., & Özel, H. G. (2008). Bebek Beslenmesi. Ankara/Türkiye.
  • Leonardo, R., Soares, R., Nunes, C., Lúcia, M., Monteiro, G., Conte-junior, C. A., Mete, E. & Aguila, D. (2016). Molecular testing on sardines and rulings on the authenticity and nutritional value of marketed fi shes : An experience report in the state of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, 60, 394–400. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.004
  • Louly, A. W. O. A., Gaydou, E. M., & Kebir, M. V. O. E. (2011). Muscle lipids and fatty acid profiles of three edible fish from the Mauritanian coast: Epinephelus aeneus, Cephalopholis taeniops and Serranus scriba. Food Chemistry, 124(1), 24–28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.097
  • Nair, K. S., Schwartz, R. G., & Welle, S. (1992). Leucine as a regulator of whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism in humans. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 263(5), 928–934.
  • Ozdemir, H. S. (2006). Importance of vitamins and minerals in human health (in turkish). J. Int. Med. Sci, 2(35), 1–7.
  • Ozden, O. (2005). Changes in amino acid and fatty acid composition during shelf-life of marinated fish. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 85(12), 2015–2020. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2207
  • Park, E. Y., Brekke, C. J., & Branen, A. L. (2006). Use of pacific hake (Merluccius products) in a frankfurther formulation. Journal of Food Science, 43(6), 1637–1640. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1978.tb07376.x
  • Paul, A. A., & Southgate, T. D. A. (1978). McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. Medical Research Council Report Series. London.
  • Ribeiro Palmeira, K., Teixeira Mársico, E., Guerra Monteiro, M. L., Môsar, L., & Conte Junior, C. A. (2016). Ready-to-eat products elaborated with mechanically separated fish meat from waste processing: challenges and chemical quality. CyTA - Journal of Food, 14(2), 227–238. http://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2015.1087050
  • Ruiz-Capillas, C., & Moral, A. (2001). Production of Biogenic Amines and Their Potential Use as Quality Control Indices for Hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) Stored in Ice. Food Research International, 34, 441–447.
  • Sidwell, V. D., Buzzel, D. H., Foncannon, P. R., & Smith, A. L. (1977). Composition of the edible portion of raw (fresh or frozen) crustaceans, finfish and molluscs. II. Macro elements: sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Marine Fisheries Review, 39(1), 1–11.
  • Simopoulos, A. P. (1991). Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease and in Growth And Development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(3), 438–463.
  • Simopoulos, A. P. (2002). Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. J Am Coll Nutr, 21(6), 495–505.
  • Soto-Jover, S., Boluda-Aguilar, M., Esnoz-Nicuesa, A., Iguaz-Gainza, A., & Lopez-Gomez, A. (2015). Texture, Oil Adsorption abd Safety of the european Style Crocuettes Manufactured at Industrial Scale. article, Food Eng Rev. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-015-9130-2
  • Srivastava, A., Hamre, K., Stoss, J., Chakrabarti, R., & Tonheim, S. K. (2006). Protein content and amino acid composition of the live feed rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis): With emphasis on the water soluble fraction. Aquaculture, 254(1–4), 534–543.
  • Tacona, A. G. J., & Metian, M. (2013). Fish Matters: Importance of Aquatic Foods in Human Nutrition and Global Food Supply. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 21(1), 22–38. http://doi.org/10.1080/10641262.2012.753405
  • TSI. (2015). TSI web version (03/2016). Retrieved from http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/
  • Turan, H., Kaya, Y., & Sönmez, G. (2006). Balık Etinin Besin Değeri ve İnsan Sağlığındaki Yeri. E.Ü Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23(Love 1982), 505–508.
  • Zar, j. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed). New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
  • Zhong, Y., Madhujith, T., Mahfouz, N., & Shahidi, F. (2007). Compositional characteristics of muscle and visceral oil from steelhead trout and their oxidative stability. Food Chemistry, 104(2), 602–608. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.036

Effects of deep-frying to sardine croquettes’ chemical composition

Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3, 293 - 302, 26.09.2017
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.08

Abstract

Fish croquettes were produced with sardine meat and effects of deep-frying on chemical composition of the products were determined in this study. The crude fat and ash increased in the sardine croquettes while water and crude protein decreased with frying process (P<0.05). Amino acid analyses showed that amount of glutamic acid, lysine and leucine were the highest ones respectively. The amount of leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine and threonine decreased while the amount of the methionine remained in the same level statistically after deep-frying. The essential amino acids for human expect tryptophan were specified in sardine meat and croquettes. Total of saturated fatty acids in sardine meat decreased associated with increasing of unsaturated fatty acids during the croquette production and deep-frying process. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and linoleic acid were detected in all groups. Considering the elemental composition of the final product after deep-frying, this research study indicates that deep-frying does not effect a number of trace elements. Also, toxic elements for human health were not detected in any products.

References

  • Aksoy, M. (2007). Nutrition and cancer. In M. Tuncer (Ed.), Cancer control in Turkey (pp. 189–197). Ankara/Turkey.
  • AOAC. (2000). Food analysis (Vol. Chapt). Gaithersburg.
  • Ayas, D. (2006). Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Hamsi (Engraulis encrasicolus) ve Sardalya (Sardina pilchardus)’nın Sıcak Tütsülenmesi Sonrasındaki Kimyasal Kompozisyon Oranlarındaki Değişimleri. E.Ü Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23(1–3), 343–346.
  • Badawy, A. A. B., Morgan, C. J., & Turner, J. A. (2008). Application of the Phenomenex EZ:faastTM amino acid analysis kit for rapid gas-chromatographic determination of concentrations of plasma tryptophan and its brain uptake competitors. Amino Acids, 34(4), 587–596.
  • Berik, N., Cankiriligil, C., & Kahraman, D. (2011). Determination of quality attributes and production of fingers from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 17(5), 735–740.
  • Bilgin, S., Izci, L., Gunlu, A., & Bolat, Y. (2010). Effect of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical components, quality parameters and cholesterol levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(39), 6573–6577.
  • Burke, P. A., Ling, P. R., Forse, R. A., Lewis, D. W., Jenkins, R., & Bistrian, B. R. (2001). Sites of conditional essential fatty acid deficiency in end stage liver disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 25(4), 188–193. http://doi.org/10.1177/0148607101025004188
  • Cakli, S. (2007). Seafood Processing Technologoies 2. Izmır-Turkey: University of Ege Publishing.
  • Chi, Z., Yan, K., Gao, L., Li, J., Wang, & Wang, L. (2008). Diversity of marine yeasts with high protein content and evaluation of their nutritive compositions. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 88(7), 1347–1352.
  • Commission, E. (2001). Commission Regulation (EC) no. 221/2002 of 6 February 2002 amending regulation (EC) no. 466/2002 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Brussel.
  • Dean, L. M. (1990). The seafood industry. In G. J. Martin (Ed.), Nutrition and Preparation (pp. 255–267). New York-U.S.A.: Van Nostrand Rainhold.
  • EPA. (1998). United States of Enviromental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.leco.com/products/organic/ama_254/pdf/7473.pdf
  • Erkan, N., Selcuk, A., & Ozden, O. (2010). Amino acid and vitamin composition of raw and cooked horse mackerel. Food Analytical Methods, 3(3), Erkan, N., Selcuk, A. and Ozden, O.
  • FAO. (2014). Global Production Statistics - FAO web version (03/2016). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/en
  • Folch, J., Lees, M., & Sladane-Stanley, G. H. A. (1957). Simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem, 226, 497–509.
  • Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2016). FishBase, version (03/2016). Retrieved from www.fishbase.org
  • Gary, L. (2015). Market report: Sunflower seed and oil. Lipid Technology, 27(1), 24.
  • Ghosh, S., & Bhattacharyya, D. K. (1997). Medium-chain fatty acid-rich glycerides by chemical and lipase-catalyzed polyester-monoester interchange reaction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74(5), 593. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-997-0186-x
  • Gokoglu, N. (2002). Seafood Processing Technology. Istanbul: Foundation of Water Publishing.
  • Grodner, R. M., Andrews, L. S., & Martin, R. E. (1991). Chemical Composition of Seafood Breading and Batter Mixes. Cereal Chemistry, 68(2), 162 – 164.
  • Hall, G. M. (1997). Fish Processing Technology (Second Edi). London: Boundary Row.
  • Horwitz, W. (2000). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (Oma). Education Gaithersburg.
  • IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. (1979). Standards methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives (6th ed.). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
  • Khan, M., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., & Nowsad Alam, A. (2013). Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 11(2), 331–340. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v11i2.19937
  • Khazaei, N., Esmaiili, M., & Emam-Djomeh, Z. (2016). Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying. Carbohydrate Polymers, 137, 249–254. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.084
  • Köksal, G., & Özel, H. G. (2008). Bebek Beslenmesi. Ankara/Türkiye.
  • Leonardo, R., Soares, R., Nunes, C., Lúcia, M., Monteiro, G., Conte-junior, C. A., Mete, E. & Aguila, D. (2016). Molecular testing on sardines and rulings on the authenticity and nutritional value of marketed fi shes : An experience report in the state of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, 60, 394–400. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.004
  • Louly, A. W. O. A., Gaydou, E. M., & Kebir, M. V. O. E. (2011). Muscle lipids and fatty acid profiles of three edible fish from the Mauritanian coast: Epinephelus aeneus, Cephalopholis taeniops and Serranus scriba. Food Chemistry, 124(1), 24–28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.097
  • Nair, K. S., Schwartz, R. G., & Welle, S. (1992). Leucine as a regulator of whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism in humans. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 263(5), 928–934.
  • Ozdemir, H. S. (2006). Importance of vitamins and minerals in human health (in turkish). J. Int. Med. Sci, 2(35), 1–7.
  • Ozden, O. (2005). Changes in amino acid and fatty acid composition during shelf-life of marinated fish. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 85(12), 2015–2020. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2207
  • Park, E. Y., Brekke, C. J., & Branen, A. L. (2006). Use of pacific hake (Merluccius products) in a frankfurther formulation. Journal of Food Science, 43(6), 1637–1640. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1978.tb07376.x
  • Paul, A. A., & Southgate, T. D. A. (1978). McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. Medical Research Council Report Series. London.
  • Ribeiro Palmeira, K., Teixeira Mársico, E., Guerra Monteiro, M. L., Môsar, L., & Conte Junior, C. A. (2016). Ready-to-eat products elaborated with mechanically separated fish meat from waste processing: challenges and chemical quality. CyTA - Journal of Food, 14(2), 227–238. http://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2015.1087050
  • Ruiz-Capillas, C., & Moral, A. (2001). Production of Biogenic Amines and Their Potential Use as Quality Control Indices for Hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) Stored in Ice. Food Research International, 34, 441–447.
  • Sidwell, V. D., Buzzel, D. H., Foncannon, P. R., & Smith, A. L. (1977). Composition of the edible portion of raw (fresh or frozen) crustaceans, finfish and molluscs. II. Macro elements: sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Marine Fisheries Review, 39(1), 1–11.
  • Simopoulos, A. P. (1991). Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease and in Growth And Development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(3), 438–463.
  • Simopoulos, A. P. (2002). Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases. J Am Coll Nutr, 21(6), 495–505.
  • Soto-Jover, S., Boluda-Aguilar, M., Esnoz-Nicuesa, A., Iguaz-Gainza, A., & Lopez-Gomez, A. (2015). Texture, Oil Adsorption abd Safety of the european Style Crocuettes Manufactured at Industrial Scale. article, Food Eng Rev. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-015-9130-2
  • Srivastava, A., Hamre, K., Stoss, J., Chakrabarti, R., & Tonheim, S. K. (2006). Protein content and amino acid composition of the live feed rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis): With emphasis on the water soluble fraction. Aquaculture, 254(1–4), 534–543.
  • Tacona, A. G. J., & Metian, M. (2013). Fish Matters: Importance of Aquatic Foods in Human Nutrition and Global Food Supply. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 21(1), 22–38. http://doi.org/10.1080/10641262.2012.753405
  • TSI. (2015). TSI web version (03/2016). Retrieved from http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/
  • Turan, H., Kaya, Y., & Sönmez, G. (2006). Balık Etinin Besin Değeri ve İnsan Sağlığındaki Yeri. E.Ü Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 23(Love 1982), 505–508.
  • Zar, j. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed). New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
  • Zhong, Y., Madhujith, T., Mahfouz, N., & Shahidi, F. (2007). Compositional characteristics of muscle and visceral oil from steelhead trout and their oxidative stability. Food Chemistry, 104(2), 602–608. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.036

Details

Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ekrem Cem ÇANKIRILIGİL
Central Fisheries Research Institute
0000-0001-5898-4469
Türkiye


Nermin BERİK
Department of Fisheries and Processing Technology, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
0000-0003-3015-8688
Türkiye

Publication Date September 26, 2017
Application Date March 16, 2017
Acceptance Date June 5, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 34, Issue 3

Cite

APA Çankırılıgil, E. C. & Berik, N. (2017). Effects of deep-frying to sardine croquettes’ chemical composition . Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 34 (3) , 293-302 . DOI: 10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.3.08