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A preliminary investigation of the effects of surface waters of the Bakırçay River on the growth of green algae Scenedesmus dimorphus

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 1, 43 - 50, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.06

Abstract



Bakırçay River, one of the important rivers of the Aegean region, has a length of 129 km and an approximate catchment area of 3160 km2. Bakırçay River, which carries agricultural drainage and polluted wastewater with high nitrogen and phosphorus content, is polluted due to domestic and agricultural resources. The water of the Bakırçay River is used for irrigation in agriculture and fishing from the dam lakes on the river for feeding purposes also negatively affects the health of the people in the vicinity. In the Bakırçay River, there is widespread pollution caused by mining areas as well as domestic, industrial and agricultural pollution. For this purpose, the “Algal Growth Inhibition Test, OECD 201” was applied to the water samples obtained from 10 stations on the Bakırçay River. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing, 1834 green algae culture, accepted as the primary trophic level representative for the "Algal Growth Inhibition Test, OECD 201" test, one of the short-term phytotoxicity test methods, was used in this test. Water samples were tested at five different dilutions (40, 60, 80, 100 %). To determine the effects on the growth of Scenedesmus dimorphus, the cells were counted by fluorimeter (Turner design) daily at the same time and the test duration was 72 hours. In conclusion, the highest level of toxicity was found at Stations 1, 9, 10,13,14, and 15. The reason for this was that there was a coal facility near Station 9 and that all branches of the Bakırçay River joined near Station15 and then drained into Çandarlı Bay.


Thanks

This study was carried out by examining the water samples obtained from the project numbered 16/SÜF/038 which was supported by Ege University Scientific Research Projects Coordination (BAP).

References

  • Arensberg, P., Hemmingsen, V.H. & Nyholm, N. (1995). A mini scale algal toxicity test. Chemosphere, 30 (11), 2103-2115. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00090-U
  • Blaise, C., Legault, R., Bermingham, N., van Coillie, R., & Vasseur, P. (1986). A simple microplate algal assay technique for aquatic toxicity assessment. Toxicity Assessment, 1(3), 261-281. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.2540010302
  • Boyacıoğlu, M., Parlak, H., Çakal Arslan, Ö., Karaaslan, M.A., Tez, S., Gülsever, G., & Nalbantlar, B. (2017). Phytotoxicity of sediment from Gölcük Lake (İzmir, Turkey) on Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) dimorphus. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 34(2), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.2.05
  • Cheung, K.C., Chu, L.M. & Wong, M.H. (1993). Toxic effect of landfill leachate on microalgae, Water Air Soil Pollution, 69(3-4)), 337–349. https://doi.org/10,1007/BF00478169
  • ÇŞB (2016). Domestic And Industrial Pollution Monitoring Program (EKIP) 2015 Water Quality Monitoring Final Report for Ergene, Gediz, Northern Aegean (Bakırçay), Küçük Menderes, Susurluk and Sakarya Basins. General Directorate of Permission and Inspection, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ankara (in Turkish).
  • De Flora, S., Bagnasco, M. & Zanacchi, P. (1991). Genotoxic, carcinogenic hazards in the marine environmental, with special reference to the Mediterranean Sea. Mutation Research, 258(3), 285-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(91)90013-1
  • De Liguoro, M., Di Leva, V., Gallina, G., Faccio, E., Pinto, G., & Pollio, A. (2010). Evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of two veterinary sulfonamides using five test organisms. Chemosphere 81(6), 788–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.003
  • EPA. (1985). U.S. Environmental protection agency, environmental effects test guidelines, federal register, 50, 39321.
  • Ferreira, R.C.F & Graca, M.A.S. (2002). A comparative study of the sensitivity of selected aquatic plants to mining effluents. Limnetica, 21(1-2), 129-134. https://doi.org/10.23818/limn.21.12
  • Gündoğdu, V. & Turhan, D., (2004). Study on the pollution of Bakırçay River Basin. Journal of Science and Engineering of Faculty of Engineering of Dokuz Eylül University. 6(3), 65-83 (In Turkish with English abstract).
  • Hoffman, D.J., Rattner, B.A., Burton Jr., G.A. & Cairns Jr.J. (2003). Handbook of Ecotoxicology. (2nd ed.) CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420032505
  • Katalay, S., Boyacıoğlu, M., Çakal Arslan, Ö., Parlak H., & Karaaslan, M.A. (2012). Phytotoxicity of water and sediment from Nif Brook (İzmir, Turkey) on green algae Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) subspicatus. Ekoloji. 21(83), 25-31. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2012.833
  • Kaymakçı Başaran, A. (2004). Pollution parameters of Bakırçay Deltaic Zone and Its Interactions with Çandarlı Bay. Doctoral Dissertation, Ege University, Turkiye (in Turkish with English abstract).
  • Kützing, F.T. (1834 '1833'). Synopsis Diatomearum oder versuch einer systematischen zusammenstellung der Diatomeen. Linnaea (8):529-620, pls XIII-XIX [79 figs]. Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing 1834: 608. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?Species_id=58629:(24.01.2023).
  • OECD. (2011). Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264069923-en
  • Ortabük, F. (2007). The determination of heavy metals and radioactive element concentrations of Bakırcay River Basin and the scrutiny of their causes through factor analysis methods. Master Thesis. Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ege University Türkiye. (in Turkish with English abstract)
  • Tomar, A. (2009). Soil and Water Pollution and protecting the water basins. TMMOB Izmir City Symposium (pp:333-345) (in Turkish).
  • Üstün, G.E. (2011). The assessment of heavy metal contamination in the waters of the Nilufer stream in Bursa. Ekoloji, 20(81), 61-66. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2011.819

Bakırçay nehri yüzey sularının Scenedesmus dimorphus yeşil algi gelişimi üzerine etkileri hakkında bir ön çalışma

Year 2023, Volume: 40 Issue: 1, 43 - 50, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.06

Abstract



Ege bölgesinin önemli akarsularından biri olan Bakırçay’ın uzunluğu 129 km ve yaklaşık havza alanı 3160 km2’dir. Tarımsal drenaj ve yüksek azot ve fosfor içerikli kirli atık suları taşıyan Bakırçay, evsel ve tarımsal atıklara bağlı olarak sürekli kirlilik yükü altında kalmaktadır. Bakırçay Deresi’nin suyu tarımsal olarak sulama amacıyla kullanılmakta ve Bakırçay’ın üzerindeki baraj göllerinden beslenme amacıyla balık avlanması Bakırçay çevresinde yaşayan halkın sağlığını olumsuz etkileyerek halk sağlığı açısından risk oluşturmaktadır. Bakırçay‘da evsel, endüstriyel ve tarımsal kirliliğin yanı sıra maden alanlarının neden olduğu yaygın kirlilik de söz konusudur. Bu amaçla, Bakırçay Nehri üzerinde bulunan 10 istasyondan temin edilen su örneklerine “Algal Büyüme İnhibisyon Testi, OECD 201” uygulanmıştır. Kısa zamanlı fitotoksisite test yöntemlerinden olan “Algal Büyüme İnhibisyon Testi, OECD 201” testi için birincil trofik seviye temsilcisi olarak kabul edilen Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing, 1834 yeşil alg kültürü bu testte kullanılmıştır. Su örnekleri beş farklı dilusyonda (% 40, 60, 80 ve 100) test edilmişlerdir. Scenedesmus dimorphus’un üremesi üzerindeki etkileri belirlemek için hücreler 72 saat boyunca her gün aynı saatte florometre (Turner tasarımı) kullanılarak sayılmıştır. Sonuç olarak en yüksek toksisite düzeyleri İstasyon 1, 9, 10, 13,14 ve15’ te saptanmış olup bunun sebebi 9 nolu istasyonun yakınlarda bir kömür tesisinin bulunması ve Bakırçay Nehrinin bütün kollarının 15 nolu istasyonda birleştikten sonra Çandarlı Körfezi’ne dökülmesidir.



References

  • Arensberg, P., Hemmingsen, V.H. & Nyholm, N. (1995). A mini scale algal toxicity test. Chemosphere, 30 (11), 2103-2115. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00090-U
  • Blaise, C., Legault, R., Bermingham, N., van Coillie, R., & Vasseur, P. (1986). A simple microplate algal assay technique for aquatic toxicity assessment. Toxicity Assessment, 1(3), 261-281. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.2540010302
  • Boyacıoğlu, M., Parlak, H., Çakal Arslan, Ö., Karaaslan, M.A., Tez, S., Gülsever, G., & Nalbantlar, B. (2017). Phytotoxicity of sediment from Gölcük Lake (İzmir, Turkey) on Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) dimorphus. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 34(2), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2017.34.2.05
  • Cheung, K.C., Chu, L.M. & Wong, M.H. (1993). Toxic effect of landfill leachate on microalgae, Water Air Soil Pollution, 69(3-4)), 337–349. https://doi.org/10,1007/BF00478169
  • ÇŞB (2016). Domestic And Industrial Pollution Monitoring Program (EKIP) 2015 Water Quality Monitoring Final Report for Ergene, Gediz, Northern Aegean (Bakırçay), Küçük Menderes, Susurluk and Sakarya Basins. General Directorate of Permission and Inspection, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ankara (in Turkish).
  • De Flora, S., Bagnasco, M. & Zanacchi, P. (1991). Genotoxic, carcinogenic hazards in the marine environmental, with special reference to the Mediterranean Sea. Mutation Research, 258(3), 285-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(91)90013-1
  • De Liguoro, M., Di Leva, V., Gallina, G., Faccio, E., Pinto, G., & Pollio, A. (2010). Evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of two veterinary sulfonamides using five test organisms. Chemosphere 81(6), 788–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.003
  • EPA. (1985). U.S. Environmental protection agency, environmental effects test guidelines, federal register, 50, 39321.
  • Ferreira, R.C.F & Graca, M.A.S. (2002). A comparative study of the sensitivity of selected aquatic plants to mining effluents. Limnetica, 21(1-2), 129-134. https://doi.org/10.23818/limn.21.12
  • Gündoğdu, V. & Turhan, D., (2004). Study on the pollution of Bakırçay River Basin. Journal of Science and Engineering of Faculty of Engineering of Dokuz Eylül University. 6(3), 65-83 (In Turkish with English abstract).
  • Hoffman, D.J., Rattner, B.A., Burton Jr., G.A. & Cairns Jr.J. (2003). Handbook of Ecotoxicology. (2nd ed.) CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420032505
  • Katalay, S., Boyacıoğlu, M., Çakal Arslan, Ö., Parlak H., & Karaaslan, M.A. (2012). Phytotoxicity of water and sediment from Nif Brook (İzmir, Turkey) on green algae Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) subspicatus. Ekoloji. 21(83), 25-31. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2012.833
  • Kaymakçı Başaran, A. (2004). Pollution parameters of Bakırçay Deltaic Zone and Its Interactions with Çandarlı Bay. Doctoral Dissertation, Ege University, Turkiye (in Turkish with English abstract).
  • Kützing, F.T. (1834 '1833'). Synopsis Diatomearum oder versuch einer systematischen zusammenstellung der Diatomeen. Linnaea (8):529-620, pls XIII-XIX [79 figs]. Desmodesmus (=Scenedesmus) dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing 1834: 608. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?Species_id=58629:(24.01.2023).
  • OECD. (2011). Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264069923-en
  • Ortabük, F. (2007). The determination of heavy metals and radioactive element concentrations of Bakırcay River Basin and the scrutiny of their causes through factor analysis methods. Master Thesis. Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ege University Türkiye. (in Turkish with English abstract)
  • Tomar, A. (2009). Soil and Water Pollution and protecting the water basins. TMMOB Izmir City Symposium (pp:333-345) (in Turkish).
  • Üstün, G.E. (2011). The assessment of heavy metal contamination in the waters of the Nilufer stream in Bursa. Ekoloji, 20(81), 61-66. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2011.819

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Environmental Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Meltem BOYACIOĞLU 0000-0002-9871-6132

Cem AYGEN 0000-0002-6351-0409

Muhammet Ali KARAASLAN 0000-0003-3737-2361

Didem ÖZDEMİR MİS 0000-0002-9962-6577

Özlem ÇAKAL ARSLAN 0000-0002-3883-9317

Project Number 16/SÜF/038
Publication Date March 15, 2023
Submission Date July 4, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 40 Issue: 1

Cite

APA BOYACIOĞLU, M., AYGEN, C., KARAASLAN, M. A., ÖZDEMİR MİS, D., et al. (2023). A preliminary investigation of the effects of surface waters of the Bakırçay River on the growth of green algae Scenedesmus dimorphus. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40(1), 43-50. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.40.1.06